Ebola virus

Ebola virus (ēbō´lə), a member of a family (Filovirus) of viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The virus, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in as yet unconfirmed hosts, possibly several species of fruit bats; experimental evidence also suggests that wild and domestic swine may be a reservoir of the disease. The virus can be fatal to chimpanzees and gorillas as well as humans.

Several strains of the virus found in Africa cause hemorrhagic fever; one found in the W Pacific does not. Once a person is infected with the virus, the disease has an incubation period of 2–21 days; however, some infected persons are asymptomatic. Initial symptoms are sudden malaise, headache, and muscle pain, progressing to high fever, vomiting, severe hemorrhaging (internally and out of the eyes and mouth) and in 50%–90% of patients, death, usually within days. The likelihood of death is governed by the virulence of the particular Ebola strain involved. Ebola virus is transmitted in body fluids and secretions; it may possibly also be transmitted through the air by aerosol droplets. There is no vaccine and no cure.

Outbreaks of Ebola virus in humans have typically occurred in tropical rainforest regions in Central and West Africa. Among the countries affected have been Congo-Kinshasa (then Zaïre) and Sudan (in a region now in South Sudan), where outbreaks occurred in 1976 and 1979; since then other outbreaks have occurred in Gabon, Uganda, and both Congos. The largest and deadliest outbreak began in 2014 in Guinea and spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone; more than 600 people had died by mid-2014. Outbreaks have been exacerbated by underequipped hospitals that reused syringes and lacked proper protective clothing for personnel. In 1989 a similar virus was found in monkeys imported to the United States.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Viruses, Plagues, and History
Michael B. A. Oldstone.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "Ebola"
The Ebola-Virus: ... and the Challenges to Health Research in Africa
Bausch, Daniel.
UN Chronicle, Vol. 38, No. 2, June-August 2001
Ebola Returns. (Follow-Up)
Reinhardt, Erika.
UN Chronicle, Vol. 39, No. 1, March 1, 2002
Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War, and Death
Susan D. Moeller.
Routledge, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "The Doomsday Disease: Ebola, Zaire, May 1995" begins on p. 80
Infectious Disease: The Human Costs of Our Environmental Errors
Weinhold, Bob.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, No. 1, January 2004
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Risk and Technological Culture: Towards a Sociology of Virulence
Joost Van Loon.
Routledge, 2002
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Emergent Pathogen Virulence: Understanding Epidemics in Apocalypse Culture"
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