Yellow Fever

yellow fever, acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South America. Epidemics have extended into subtropical and temperate regions during warm seasons. In 1878 a severe outbreak in the Mississippi Valley killed about 20,000; the last epidemic in the United States occurred in New Orleans in 1905. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations. A form of the disease called sylvan or jungle yellow fever is transmitted in tropical jungles by other species of mosquitoes that live in trees. Other primates are susceptible to the disease and function as a reservoir of the virus.

At the end of the 19th cent., yellow fever was highly prevalent in the Caribbean, and a way of controlling it had to be found before construction of the Panama Canal could be undertaken. In 1900 an American commission headed by Walter Reed and including James Carroll, Jesse Lazear, and Arístides Agramonte gathered in the U.S. Army's Camp Columbia in Cuba. Through their experiments—one of which severely sickened Carroll and killed Lazear—they proved the theory of C. J. Finlay that yellow fever was a mosquito-borne infection. Within the next few years, W. C. Gorgas, an army physician and sanitation expert, succeeded in controlling the disease in the Panama Canal Zone and other areas in that part of the world by mosquito-eradication measures. The later development of an immunizing vaccine (work on which won Max Theiler a Nobel Prize) and strict quarantine measures against ships, planes, and passengers coming from known or suspected yellow-fever areas further aided control of the disease.

Yellow fever begins suddenly after an incubation period of three to five days. In mild cases only fever and headache may be present. The severe form of the disease commences with fever, chills, bleeding into the skin, rapid heartbeat, headache, back pains, and extreme prostration. Nausea, vomiting, and constipation are common. Jaundice usually appears on the second or third day. After the third day the symptoms recede, only to return with increased severity in the final stage, during which there is a marked tendency to hemorrhage internally; the characteristic "coffee ground" vomitus contains blood. The patient then lapses into delirium and coma, often followed by death. During epidemics the fatality rate was often as high as 85%. Although the disease still occurs, it is usually confined to sporadic outbreaks.

See study by M. C. Crosby (2006).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Viruses, Plagues, and History
Michael B. A. Oldstone.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Yellow Fever"
Bring out Your Dead: The Great Plague of Yellow Fever in Philadelphia in 1793
J. H. Powell.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993
Readings in Biological Science
Irving William Knobloch.
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 24 "Walter Reed and the Conquest of Yellow Fever"
Frontiers of Medicine in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1899-1940
Heather Bell.
Clarendon Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The International Construction of Yellow Fever"
The Landscape of Disease: Swamps and Medical Discourse in the American Southeast, 1800-1880
Nelson, Megan Kate.
The Mississippi Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 4, Fall 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Yellow Fever Immunities in West Africa and the Americas in the Age of Slavery and Beyond: A Reappraisal
Watts, Sheldon.
Journal of Social History, Vol. 34, No. 4, Summer 2001
Response to Sheldon Watts, "Yellow Fever Immunities in West Africa and the Americas in the Age of Slavery and Beyond: A Reappraisal"
Kiple, Kenneth F.
Journal of Social History, Vol. 34, No. 4, Summer 2001
Response to Kenneth Kiple
Watts, Sheldon.
Journal of Social History, Vol. 34, No. 4, Summer 2001
Yellow Fever, Black Goddess: The Coevolution of People and Plagues
Christopher Wills.
Addison Wesley, 1996
A River and Its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans
Ari Kelman.
University of California Press, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Necropolis of the South"
Missions for Science: U.S. Technology and Medicine in America's African World
David McBride.
Rutgers University Press, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "Yellow Fever and Malaria Resurgent" begins on p. 71
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