Human Genome Project

Human Genome Project, international scientific effort to map all of the genes on the 23 pairs of human chromosomes and, to sequence the 3.1 billion DNA base pairs that make up the chromosomes (see nucleic acid). Begun in 1990 with the goal of enabling scientists to understand the basis of genetic diseases and to gain insight into human evolution, the project was largely completed in 2000 when 85% of the human genome was decoded, and ended in 2003 with 99% decoded; detailed analyses of all the pairs were published by 2006. In the process, scientists identified genes for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, Huntington's disease, and an inherited form of breast cancer. In addition, the project decoded the genome of the bacterium E. coli, a fruit fly, and a nematode worm (see phylum Nematoda), in order to study genetic similarities among species, and a mouse genome was also decoded.

The Human Genome Project involved laboratories in the United States, France, Great Britain, Germany, and Japan. It was financed in the United States by the National Institutes of Health and by the Department of Energy and in Great Britain by the Wellcome Trust of London. A comparable project using new DNA-sequencing machines was begun as a private industry venture in the United States in 1998, with a stated goal of completing the mapping of the genome in three years.

Early in 2001 scientists from both teams jointly announced the "completion" of the mapping of the human genome, indicating that they had identified an estimated 30,000 genes (instead of the expected 100,000), constituting just 1% of the total human DNA. Subsequent comparison of the two teams' data has indicated that, because of differences in the genes identified by the teams, there may in fact be as many as 40,000 human genes. A subsequent, more refined estimate (2004) based on additional work on the genome was that there are between 20,000 and 25,000 genes. Work continues on further refining the sequencing of the genes on the chromosomes, eliminating the remaining gaps in the genome map, and identifying the extent of variation in the human genome. In 2007 the first sequences of human individuals (James D. Watson and J. Craig Venter, who led the public and private human genome sequencing efforts, respectively) were released; Venter's genome was the first full (diploid) individual human genome. The NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information maintains GenBank, a database of publicly available genetic sequences from the genomes of plants and animals, including some extinct species.

See studies by J. Sulston and G. Ferry (2003) and J. Shreeve (2004).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Drawing the Map of Life: Inside the Human Genome Project
Victor K. McElheny.
Basic Books, 2012
The Human Genome Project: Cracking the Genetic Code of Life
Thomas F. Lee.
Plenum Press, 1991
Genomes and What to Make of Them
Barry Barnes; John Dupré.
University of Chicago Press, 2008
Access to the Genome: The Challenge to Equality
Maxwell J. Mehlman; Jeffrey R. Botkin.
Georgetown University Press, 1998
The Implicit Genome
Lynn Helena Caporale.
Oxford University Press, 2006
Issues and Dilemmas of Biotechnology: A Reference Guide
Bernice Schacter.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "The Human Genome Project"
From Molecular Genetics to Genomics: The Mapping Cultures of Twentieth-Century Genetics
Jean-Paul Gaudillière; Hans-Jörg Rheinberger.
Routledge, 2004
Genetic Anomaly or Genetic Diversity: Thinking in the Key of Disability on the Human Genome
Iozzio, Mary Jo.
Theological Studies, Vol. 66, No. 4, December 2005
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Genomic Medicine: The Human Genome Project from a Healthcare Provider's Perspective
.
Journal of Law and Health, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 2001
The Human Genome Project: Implications for Families
Miller, Virginia L.; Martin, Angela M.
Health and Social Work, Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The New Healers: The Promise and Problems of Molecular Medicine in the Twenty-First Century
William R. Clark.
Oxford University Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 12 "The Human Genome Project"
Changing Nature's Course: The Ethical Challenge of Biotechnology
Gerhold K. Becker; James P. Buchanan.
Hong Kong University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Technology Assessment, Ethics, and Public Policy in Biotechnology: The Case of the Human Genome Project"
Genesis: The Evolution of Biology
Jan Sapp.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 17 "Beyond the Genome"
From Alchemy to IPO: The Business of Biotechnology
Cynthia Robbins-Roth.
Perseus, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "The Human Genome Project"
Biotechnology and Communication: The Meta-Technologies of Information
Sandra Braman.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004
Librarian’s tip: "Meta-Technology, the Human Genome, and Intellectual Property" begins on p. 129
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