Biology History

biology

biology, the science that deals with living things. It is broadly divided into zoology, the study of animal life, and botany, the study of plant life. Subdivisions of each of these sciences include cytology (the study of cells), histology (the study of tissues), anatomy or morphology, physiology, and embryology (the study of the embryonic development of an individual animal or plant). Also included in biological studies are the sciences of genetics, evolution, paleontology, and taxonomy or systematics, the study of classification. The methods and attitudes of other sciences are brought to the study of biology in such fields as biochemistry (physiological chemistry), biophysics (the physics of life processes), bioclimatology and biogeography (ecology), bioengineering (the design of artificial organs), biometry or biostatistics, bioenergetics, and biomathematics. Evidences of early human observations of nature are seen in prehistoric cave art. Biological concepts began to develop among the early Greeks. The biological works of Aristotle include his observations and classification of his large collections of animals. The invention of the microscope in the 16th cent. gave a great stimulus to biology, broadening and deepening its scope and creating the sciences of microbiology, the study of microscopic forms of life, and microscopy, the microscopic study of living cells. Among the many who contributed to the science are Claude Bernard, Cuvier, Darwin, T. H. Huxley, Lamarck, Linnaeus, Mendel, and Pasteur. See marine biology.

See T. Lenoir, The Strategy of Life (1989); C. A. Villee et al., Biology (3d ed. 1989); N. A. Campbell, Biology (3d ed. 1993).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Epic History of Biology
Anthony Serafini.
Plenum Press, 1993
The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance
Ernst Mayr.
Belknap Press, 1982
The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology
Lily E. Kay.
Oxford University Press, 1993
The Coil of Life: The Story of the Great Discoveries in the Life Sciences
Ruth Moore.
Knopf, 1961
A History of Biology to about the Year 1900: A General Introduction to the Study of Living Things
Charles Singer.
Abelard-Schuman, 1959 (3rd edition)
The History of Biological Theories
Emanuel RÁdl; E. J. Hatfield.
H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1930
Biology and Language: An Introduction to the Methodology of the Biological Sciences, Including Medicine
.
Unknown, 1952
Classics of Biology
August Pi Suñer; Charles M. Stern.
Philosophical Library, 1955
Genesis: The Evolution of Biology
Jan Sapp.
Oxford University Press, 2003
Molecularizing Biology and Medicine: New Practices and Alliances, 1910s-1970s
Soraya De Chadarevian; Harmke Kamminga.
Harwood Academic, 1998
What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery
Francis Crick.
Basic Books, 1988
Thomas Huxley: Making the "Man of Science"
Paul White.
Cambridge University Press, 2003
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