Illegal Immigration

immigration

immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. High rates of immigration are frequently accompanied by militant, and sometimes violent, calls for immigration restriction or deportation by nationalist groups. See also naturalization.

Immigration in the United States

From 1820 to 1930, the United States received about 60% of the world's immigrants. Population expansion in developed areas of the world, improved methods of transportation, and U.S. desire to populate available space were all factors in this phenomenon. Through the 19th cent., the United States was in the midst of agricultural, then industrial, expansion. The desire for cheap, unskilled labor and the profits to be made importing immigrants fueled the movement. Immigrants were largely responsible for the rapid development of the country, and their high birthrates did much to swell the U.S. population. Often, however, immigrants formed distinct ethnic neighborhoods, tending to remain somewhat isolated from the wider culture. Frequently exploited, some immigrants were accused by organized labor of lowering wages and living standards, though other groups of immigrants rapidly became mainstays of the labor movement. Opposition was early manifested by such organizations as the Know-Nothing movement and in violent anti-Chinese riots on the West Coast.

Restrictions placed on immigration were often based on race or nationality. There were also restrictions against the entrance of diseased persons, paupers, and other undesirables, and laws were passed for the deportation of aliens. The first permanent quota law was passed in 1924; it also provided for a national origins plan to be put into effect in 1929. In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act (the McCarran-Walter Act) was passed; while abolishing race as an overall barrier to immigration, it kept particular forms of national bias. The act was amended in 1965, abolishing the national origins quota. Despite overall limits, immigration to the United States has burgeoned since 1965, and the 1980s saw the highest level of new immigrants since the first decade of the 20th cent.

In 1986, Congress passed legislation that sought to limit the numbers of undocumented or illegal aliens living in America, imposing stiff fines on employers who hired them and giving legal status to a number of aliens who had already lived in the United States for some time. The Immigration Act of 1990 raised the total quota for immigrants and reorganized the preference system for entrance. The 1996 Illegal Immigration and Reform Responsibility Act led to massive deportations of illegal immigrants. Its provisions were later softened under political and legal attack, but a stricter approach to immigrants in general was adopted by the government following the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks.

A number of states have also enacted legislation designed to combat illegal immigration. The state laws appear not to have led to any significant convictions, but in some cases they have increased tensions with the local Hispanic minority and led to a migration of Hispanics, whether illegal immigrants or not, from the state. A 2012 Supreme Court decision concerning Arizona's law largely reserved to the federal government the right to enact and enforce immigration law while permitting state law enforcement officers to review a person's immigration status.

Immigration in Other Countries

Canada, in the first third of the 20th cent., began to receive an increasing number of immigrants, attracted by the expansion of agriculture in the west and the development of industry in the east. Australia and New Zealand received many European immigrants in the 19th cent.; the former country has been characterized by a preference for immigrants of British stock and by a policy of excluding Africans and Asians that dated from the late 19th cent. After 1965, however, this policy began to change; by the 1970s Australia had abandoned the system of racial preferences, and Asian immigration rapidly increased. Two major trends in immigration emerged after World War II: Australia and New Zealand became the countries with the highest rates of increase, and large numbers of Europeans immigrated to Africa. In recent decades, immigration to Europe from Asia and Africa has also substantially increased, as has emigration from Eastern Europe to the newly reunified Germany.

Bibliography

See studies by M. R. Davie (1983), I. Glazier and L. DeRosa (1986), V. N. Sinha (1987), D. R. Steiner (1987), and A. Richmond (1988).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Illegal, Alien, or Immigrant: The Politics of Immigration Reform
Lina Newton.
New York University Press, 2008
Aliens vs. Bureaucrats: Our Costly, Record-Breaking System for Dealing with Illegal Immigrants
Beato, Greg.
Reason, Vol. 43, No. 10, March 2012
Economy-Wide Effects of Reducing Illegal Immigrants in U.S. Employment
Dixon, Peter B.; Johnson, Martin; Rimmer, Maureen T.
Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 29, No. 1, January 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Adverse Impacts of Massive and Illegal Immigration in the United States
Blondell, Jerome.
The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Temporarily FREE! The Criminalization of Immigration: The Post 9/11 Moral Panic
Samantha Hauptman.
LFB Scholarly, 2013
Immigration and Border Control
Alden, Edward.
The Cato Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, Winter 2012
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the "Illegal Alien" and the Making of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary
Joseph Nevins.
Routledge, 2002
Illegal People: How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants
David Bacon.
Beacon Press, 2008
The Perpetual Border Battle
Krikorian, Mark.
The National Interest, No. 120, July-August 2012
Papers, Please: Does the Constitution Permit the States a Role in Immigration Enforcement?
Eastman, John C.
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Vol. 35, No. 2, Spring 2012
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Muddled Masses: The Immigration Detention System Treats Suspected Illegal Aliens like Criminals, but with Fewer Rights
DeConto, Jesse James.
Reason, Vol. 43, No. 3, July 2011
Going Home: Illegal Immigration Reverses Course
.
Harvard International Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, Summer 2012
Social Work Practice with Immigrants and Refugees
Pallassana R. Balgopal.
Columbia University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "Illegal Immigration" begins on p. 69
Diary of an Undocumented Immigrant
Ramón "Tianguis" Pérez; Dick J. Reavis.
Arte Publico Press, 1991
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