Caddo Indians

Caddo

Caddo (kăd´ō), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). These people gave their name not only to the linguistic branch but also to the Caddo confederacy, a loose federation of tribes that in prehistoric times occupied lands from the Red River valley in Louisiana to the Brazos River valley in Texas and N into Arkansas and Kansas. Members, besides the Caddo, included the Arikara, the Pawnee, the Wichita, and others. The culture of these loosely knit peoples was similar. Generally they were sedentary, living in villages of conical huts, although they did raise horses. The culture of the Caddo proper was marked by a clearly defined system of social stratification and by a religion that closely regulated daily life. Some now reside on tribal land in Oklahoma. In 1990 there were 3,000 Caddo in the United States.

See J. T. Hughes, Prehistory of the Caddoan-Speaking Tribes (1968).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542-1854
F. Todd Smith.
Texas A&M University Press, 1995
Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians
John R. Swanton.
U. S. Government Printing Office, 1942
Traditions of the Caddo
George A. Dorsey.
University of Nebraska Press, 1997
The Archaeology of the Caddo
Timothy K. Perttula; Chester P. Walker.
University of Nebraska Press, 2012
FREE! Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan, and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi
David I. Bushnell Jr.
Washington Government Printing Office, 1922
Burials of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi
David I. Bushnell Jr.
Govt. Print. Off., 1927
The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890
James Mooney.
University of Nebraska Press, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Includes "The Caddo and Associated Tribes"
The Transformation of the Southeastern Indians, 1540-1760
Robbie Ethridge; Charles Hudson.
University Press of Mississippi, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "Social Changes among the Caddo Indians in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries" begins on p. 249
The Hoe and the Horse on the Plains: A Study of Cultural Development among North American Indians
Preston Holder.
University of Nebraska Press, 1974
Librarian’s tip: Includes "The Village Way of Life"
The Emperor's Giraffe and Other Stories of Cultures in Contact
Samuel M. Wilson.
Westview Press, 1999
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