Choctaw Indians


Choctaw (chŏk´tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.

See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Choctaw Genesis, 1500-1700
Patricia Galloway.
University of Nebraska Press, 1995
Choctaws in a Revolutionary Age, 1750-1830
Greg O'Brien.
University of Nebraska Press, 2002
Choctaws at the Crossroads: The Political Economy of Class and Culture in the Oklahoma Timber Region
Sandra Faiman-Silva.
University of Nebraska Press, 2000
Source Material for the Social and Ceremonial Life of the Choctaw Indians
John R. Swanton.
United States Government Printing Office, 1931
FREE! The Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana
David I. Bushnell Jr.
Govt. Print. Off., 1909
The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos
Richard White.
University of Nebraska Press, 1983
The Supreme Court's Role in Choctaw and Chickasaw Dispossession*
Kilpinen, Jon T.
The Geographical Review, Vol. 94, No. 4, October 2004
The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians
Francis Paul Prucha.
University of Nebraska Press, 1984
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "The Emigration of the Southern Tribes"
Presbyterian Missionary Attitudes toward American Indians, 1837-1893
Michael C. Coleman.
University Press of Mississippi, 1985
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "American Indians: 'Civilized' Choctaws and 'Savage' Nez Perces"
The Cultural Transformation of a Native American Family and Its Tribe, 1763-1995: A Basket of Apples
Joel Spring.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996
Early Effects of Technology on the Oklahoma Choctaw Language Community
Haag, Marcia; Coston, F. Wayne.
Language, Learning & Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, May 2002
Choctaw Tales
Tom Mould.
University Press of Mississippi, 2004
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