Creek Indians

Creek

Creek, Native North American confederacy. The peoples forming it were mostly of the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). The Creek received their name from early white traders because so many of their villages were located at rivers and creeks. They lived primarily in Alabama and Georgia and were settled, agricultural people. There were more than 50 towns, generally called tribes, in the confederacy, which was formed chiefly for protection against the tribes to the north. Certain villages were set aside for war ceremonies, others for peace celebrations. Each had its annual green corn dance. This festival was a time for renewing social ties and was a period of amnesty for criminals, except murderers. The Creek Confederacy was not ruled by a permanent central government. The structure was a combination of democratic and communal principles. Decisions by the national council were not binding on towns or individuals who wished to dissent. Nevertheless, civil strife was almost unknown among them. Private ownership of land was unknown, but crops were privately owned to a degree. Each owner was required to contribute a certain portion for public use.

The Creek impressed the first European explorers (Hernando De Soto saw them in 1540) by their height, their proud bearing, and their love of ornament. They were hostile to the Spanish and therefore friendly to the British in colonial days, but, frightened by white encroachment and fired by the teachings of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, they rebelled in the Creek War of 1813–14. They massacred a large number of American settlers at Fort Mims, and Andrew Jackson won part of his reputation by defeating them at the battle of Horseshoe Bend. By a treaty signed in 1814 the Creek ceded approximately two thirds of their land to the United States, and subsequent cessions further reduced their holdings. Eventually they were moved to the Indian Territory, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. A treaty signed by the confederacy in 1889 permitted white settlement of their lands, and there was great bitterness among the Creek. In 1990 there were over 45,000 Creek, most of them living in Oklahoma.

See J. R. Swanton, The Early History of the Creek Indians (1922) and Social Origins and Social Usages of the Indians of the Creek Confederacy (1928, repr. 1970); G. Foreman, The Five Civilized Tribes (new ed. 1953, repr. 1966); D. H. Corkran, The Creek Frontier, 1540–1783 (1967).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Deerskins & Duffels: The Creek Indian Trade with Anglo-America, 1685-1815
Kathryn E. Holland Braund.
University of Nebraska Press, 1996
Creek Religion and Medicine
John R. Swanton.
University of Nebraska Press, 2000
Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815
Dunbar Rowland.
Macmillan, 1926
The Southern Indians: The Story of the Civilized Tribes before Removal
R. S. Cotterill.
University of Oklahoma Press, 1954
Librarian’s tip: Includes "The Creek War 1813-1814"
The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians
Francis Paul Prucha.
University of Nebraska Press, 1984
Librarian’s tip: Includes a section on the Creek Indians
McIntosh and Weatherford, Creek Indian Leaders
Benjamin W. Griffith Jr.
University of Alabama Press, 1998
McGillivray of the Creeks
John Walton Caughey.
University of Oklahoma Press, 1938
Alex Posey: Creek Poet, Journalist, and Humorist
Daniel F. Littlefield Jr.
University of Nebraska Press, 1992
A New Order of Things: Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733-1816
Claudio Saunt.
Cambridge University Press, 1999
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