Pawnee Indians

Pawnee

Pawnee (pônē´), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). At one time the Pawnee lived in what is now Texas, but by 1541, when Coronado visited Quivira, they seem to have been settled in the valley of the Platte River in S Nebraska. By the early 18th cent. the Pawnee had divided into four groups: the Skidi (or Wolf), the Grand, the Republican, and the Tapage (or Noisy). They then numbered some 10,000. By the time French traders settled (c.1750) among them, the Pawnee had extended their territory to the Republican River in N Kansas and the Niobrara River in N Nebraska. In 1806, Spanish soldiers visited the Pawnee just before the arrival of the expedition of Zebulon M. Pike.

In material culture the Pawnee resembled other Native Americans of the Plains area but they had an elaborate set of myths and rituals. Their supreme god was Tirawa (the sun), who with Mother Earth conceived Morning Star. Morning Star was the rising and dying god of vegetation. The Pawnee periodically sacrificed a young woman to Morning Star. This custom, one of the few examples of human sacrifice N of Mexico, was, however, ended by the great Pawnee chief Pitalesharo (b. c.1797).

The Pawnee were hostile to the Sioux and the Cheyenne, although friendly toward the Oto. They were fierce fighters, but they never warred against the United States, even when treated unjustly by the government. In fact, the Pawnee provided scouts for the U.S. army in the Indian wars as well as protecting the Union Pacific RR from the depredations of other Native Americans. Pawnee population was reduced by wars with the Sioux and by the smallpox and cholera epidemics of the 1830s and 1840s. By a series of treaties begun early in the 19th cent. the Pawnee ceded all of their land in Nebraska and in 1876 moved to a reservation in Oklahoma, where they were granted the right to own their land individually. In 1990 there were over 3,300 Pawnee in the United States.

See R. Linton, The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi Pawnee (1922); W. Wedel, An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology (1936); G. Weltfish, The Lost Universe (1965); G. E. Hyde, The Pawnee Indians (rev. ed. 1973).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The Lost Universe: Pawnee Life and Culture
Gene Weltfish.
University of Nebraska Press, 1977
Some Things Are Not Forgotten: A Pawnee Family Remembers
Martha Royce Blaine.
University of Nebraska Press, 1997
FREE! The Pawnee Mythology
George A. Dorsey.
Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906
An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology
Waldo Rudolph Wedel.
United States Government Printing Office, 1936
Pawnee Music
Frances Densmore.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1929
Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales: With Notes on the Origin, Customs, and Character of the Pawnee People
George Bird Grinnell.
University of Nebraska Press, 1961
The Direct-Historical Approach in Pawnee Archeology
Waldo R. Wedel.
The Smithsonian Institution, 1938
The Hako: Song, Pipe, and Unity in a Pawnee Calumet Ceremony
Alice C. Fletcher; James R. Murie; Helen Myers.
University of Nebraska Press, 1996
The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos
Richard White.
University of Nebraska Press, 1983
FREE! A Tour of the Prairies
Washington Irving.
John B. Alden, 1884
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XV "The Search for the Elk -- Pawnee Stories"
The Nebraska Indian Wars Reader, 1865-1877
R. Eli Paul.
University of Nebraska Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Part 2 "Pawnee Triumph, Pawnee Tragedy"
Two Great Scouts and Their Pawnee Battalion: The Experiences of Frank J. North and Luther H. North, Pioneers in the Great West, 1856-1882, and Their Defence of the Building of the Union Pacific Railroad
George Bird Grinnell.
University of Nebraska Press, 1973
An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians
David J. Wishart.
University of Nebraska Press, 1994
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of Pawnee Indians in multiple chapters
With Good Intentions: Quaker Work among the Pawnees, Otos, and Omahas in the 1870s
Clyde A. Milner II.
University of Nebraska Press, 1982
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