Human Rights and Women

human rights

human rights, universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth. Conceptually derived from the theory of natural law and originating in Greco-Roman doctrines, the idea of human rights appears in some early Christian writers' works and is reflected in the Magna Carta (1215). The concept winds as a philosophical thread through 17th- and 18th-century European and American thought, including the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789). The United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, with Eleanor Roosevelt as chair, created the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which reasserted the concept of human rights after the horrors of World War II. Human rights have since become a universally espoused yet widely disregarded concept.

Organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch promote human rights and denounce human-rights abuses. In addition, such abuses around the world are monitored and documented by independent investigators ( "special rapporteurs" ) appointed by the UN Human Rights Council, which, in turn, rebukes cited nations for their human-rights failures. (The council replaced the UN Human Rights Commission, which had been accused of protecting human-rights violators, in mid-2006; similar accusations have been leveled at the new council.) In Europe, the supranational European Court of Human Rights, established under the Council of Europe, is intended to protect individual human rights from government abuse.

The charging in 1998 by a Spanish court of former Chilean president Augusto Pinochet with human-rights violations and the 1999 British ruling that he could be extradited to Spain, as well as the indictment and arrest (2000) in Senegal of former Chadian president Hissène Habré for human-rights violations during his presidency (although charges were later dropped, he was subsequently rearrested on a Belgian warrant), were regarded as small steps forward in the international protection of human rights.

See also civil rights; feminism; gay-rights movement; war crimes.

See M. A. Glendon, A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2001); A. Fagan, The Atlas of Human Rights (2010); S. Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (2010); A. Neier, The International Human Rights Movement (2012).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives
Rebecca J. Cook.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994
Promoting Women's Rights as Human Rights
United Nations, 1999
Women's Voices, Women's Rights: Oxford Amnesty Lectures 1996
Alison Jeffries.
Westview Press, 1999
Gender, Planning, and Human Rights
Tovi Fenster.
Routledge, 1999
Agenda Setting, the UN, and NGOs: Gender Violence and Reproductive Rights
Jutta M. Joachim.
Georgetown University Press, 2007
Peace as a Women's Issue: A History of the U.S. Movement for World Peace and Women's Rights
Harriet Hyman Alonso.
Syracuse University Press, 1993
Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'Im.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 13 "Considering Gender: Are Human Rights for Women, Too? An Australian Case"
Human Rights: The Essential Reference
Carol Devine; Carol Rae Hansen; Ralph Wilde; Hilary Poole.
Oryx Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 10 "Universal Suffrage and Early Feminism"
The Colonial Heritage of Human Rights in Indonesia: The Case of the Vote for Women, 1916-41
Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth.
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, March 1999
International Human Rights, Decolonisation and Globalisation: Becoming Human
Shelly Wright.
Routledge, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Witches, Slaves and Savages"
Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics
Ann Elizabeth Mayer.
Westview Press, 1991 (3rd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Discrimination against Women and Non-Muslims" and Chap. 6 "Restrictions on the Rights and Freedoms of Women"
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