Apprenticeship

apprenticeship, system of learning a craft or trade from one who is engaged in it and of paying for the instruction by a given number of years of work. The practice was known in ancient Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as well as in modern Europe and to some extent in the United States. Typically, in medieval Europe, a master craftsman agreed to instruct a young man, to give him shelter, food, and clothing, and to care for him during illness. The apprentice would bind himself to work for the master for a given time. After that time he would become a journeyman, working for a master for wages, or he set up as a master himself. The medieval guilds supervised the relation of master and apprentice and decided the number of apprentices in a given guild. The Industrial Revolution, with its introduction of machinery, put an end to most of these guilds, but apprenticeship continues in highly skilled trades, at times competing with vocational training schools (see vocational education).

The terms of apprenticeship are regulated by many labor agreements as well as by law. The U.S. system of apprenticeships, established in 1937, is modeled on a 1911 Wisconsin law that named 200 occupations that benefited from apprenticeship programs. Some, such as plumbing and carpentry, required a mandatory apprenticeship period. The passage of the Manpower Development and Training Act in 1962 further encouraged apprenticeship programs. In Great Britain apprenticeship programs sometimes include outside schooling at company expense. The apprenticeship programs in continental Europe today differ from those in Great Britain and the United States by offering training in a wide range of fields, not just the skilled crafts.

Bibliography

See A. Beveridge, Apprenticeship Now (1963); N. F. Duffy, ed., Essays on Apprenticeship (1967); P. Mapp, Women in Apprenticeship (1973).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Social Policies for Children
Irwin Garfinkel; Jennifer L. Hochschild; Sara S. McLanahan.
Brookings Institutuion, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Building Hope, Skills, and Careers: Creating a Youth Apprenticeship System" begins on p. 136
Youthjobs: Toward a Private/Public Partnership
David Bresnick; Frank Macchiarola.
Quorum Books, 1984
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of apprenticeship in multiple chapters
The School-To-Work Revolution: How Employers and Educators Are Joining Forces to Prepare Tomorrow's Skilled Workforce
Lynn Olson.
Perseus Publishing, 1998
Apprenticeship in the British 'Training Market'
Ryan, Paul; Unwin, Lorna.
National Institute Economic Review, October 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The German Skills Machine: Sustaining Comparative Advantage in a Global Economy
Pepper D. Culpepper; David Finegold.
Berghahn Books, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of apprenticeship in multiple chapters
Five Years of the Modern Apprenticeship Initiative: An Assessment against Continental European Models [1]
Steedman, Hilary.
National Institute Economic Review, October 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Apprenticeships for the 21st Century
Packert, Ginger.
Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 77, No. 10, June 1996
Working to Learn - the Apprenticeship Experience
Carlson, Judith B.
JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, Vol. 64, No. 8, October 1993
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
How Do We Tell the Workers? The Socioeconomic Foundations of Work and Vocational Education
Joe L. Kincheloe.
Westview Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: "The Search for Painless Policies: Youth Apprenticeships as Panacea" begins on p. 406
Renaissance Society and Culture
John Monfasani; Ronald G. Musto.
Italica Press, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XV "Reconsidering Apprenticeship in Sixteenth-Century London"
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