Irish Language

Irish language, also called Irish Gaelic and Erse, member of the Goidelic group of the Celtic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Celtic languages). The history of Irish as a literary language falls into three periods: Old Irish (7th–9th cent. AD), Middle Irish (10th–16th cent.), and Modern Irish (since the 16th cent.). In the medieval period a great Irish literature flourished. Grammatically, there are still four cases for the noun (nominative, genitive, vocative, and, in some dialects, dative). In pronunciation the stress is on the first syllable. An acute accent is placed over a vowel to denote length, and a dot is placed over a consonant to indicate aspiration. The alphabet employed today for Irish can be called a variant or a derivative of the Roman alphabet that took shape about the 8th cent. AD It has 18 letters: 13 consonants and 5 vowels. The oldest extant Irish texts are inscriptions written in the ogham script (see ogham). These texts date back to the 5th cent. AD or perhaps earlier and differ as much from the early literary Irish that follows them as Latin does from Old French. Native speakers of Irish are now concentrated in the western counties of Ireland. The government of Ireland is trying, thus far unsuccessfully, to revive Irish as the primary language of the country; it is an official language, and the study of Irish is required in preparatory schools. See also Gaelic literature.

See H. Wagner, Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (4 vol., 1958–69); R. P. M. and W. P. Lehman, An Introduction to Old Irish (1975).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Language Policy and Social Reproduction: Ireland, 1893-1993
Pádraig Ó Riagáin.
Oxford University, 1997
The Irish Language in the United States: A Historical, Sociolinguistic, and Applied Linguistic Survey
Thomas W. Ihde.
Bergin & Garvey, 1994
Ireland: Historical Echoes, Contemporary Politics
Richard B. Finnegan; Edward T. McCarron.
Westview Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Doors Opening and Closing: Economy, Education, and the Irish Language"
A Grammar of Old Irish
Rudolf Thurneysen; D. A. Binchy; Osborn Bergin.
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946 (Revised edition)
Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages
Daniel Nettle; Suzanne Romaine.
Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: "First Casualties: The Celtic Languages" begins on p. 133
International Handbook of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education
Christina Bratt Paulston.
Greenwood Press, 1988
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the Irish language begins on p. 111
FREE! Ireland and England: In the Past and at Present
Edward Raymond Turner.
Century, 1919
Librarian’s tip: Part III, Chap. I "Irish Language and Literature and the Irish Revival"
Language and Conquest in Early Modern Ireland: English Renaissance Literature and Elizabethan Imperial Expansion
Patricia Palmer.
Cambridge University Press, 2001
Search for more books and articles on the Irish language