Human Rights and Africa

human rights

human rights, universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth. Conceptually derived from the theory of natural law and originating in Greco-Roman doctrines, the idea of human rights appears in some early Christian writers' works and is reflected in the Magna Carta (1215). The concept winds as a philosophical thread through 17th- and 18th-century European and American thought, including the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789). The United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, with Eleanor Roosevelt as chair, created the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which reasserted the concept of human rights after the horrors of World War II. Human rights have since become a universally espoused yet widely disregarded concept.

Organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch promote human rights and denounce human-rights abuses. In addition, such abuses around the world are monitored and documented by independent investigators ( "special rapporteurs" ) appointed by the UN Human Rights Council, which, in turn, rebukes cited nations for their human-rights failures. (The council replaced the UN Human Rights Commission, which had been accused of protecting human-rights violators, in mid-2006; similar accusations have been leveled at the new council.) In Europe, the supranational European Court of Human Rights, established under the Council of Europe, is intended to protect individual human rights from government abuse.

The charging in 1998 by a Spanish court of former Chilean president Augusto Pinochet with human-rights violations and the 1999 British ruling that he could be extradited to Spain, as well as the indictment and arrest (2000) in Senegal of former Chadian president Hissène Habré for human-rights violations during his presidency (although charges were later dropped, he was subsequently rearrested on a Belgian warrant), were regarded as small steps forward in the international protection of human rights.

See also civil rights; feminism; gay-rights movement; war crimes.

See M. A. Glendon, A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2001); A. Fagan, The Atlas of Human Rights (2010); S. Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (2010); A. Neier, The International Human Rights Movement (2012).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Human Rights in Africa: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Naim; Francis M. Deng.
The Brookings Institution, 1990
Emerging Human Rights: The African Political Economy Context
George W. Shepherd Jr.; Mark O. C. Anikpo.
Greenwood Press, 1990
Protecting Human Rights in Africa: Roles and Strategies of Non-Governmental Organizations
Claude E. Welch Jr.
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995
Democratization and the Protection of Human Rights in Africa: Problems and Prospects
Brendalyn P. Ambrose.
Praeger Publishers, 1995
State Integration and Human Rights in Africa
Maxted, Julia; Zegeye, Abebe.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, June 1997
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The End of Apartheid in South Africa
Lindsay Michie Eades.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Human Rights and Third World Development
George W. Shepherd Jr.; Ved P. Nanda.
Greenwood Press, 1985
State Building and Democratization in Africa: Faith, Hope, and Realities
Kidane Mengisteab; Cyril Daddieh.
Praeger Publishers, 1999
African Reckoning: A Quest for Good Governance
Francis M. Deng; Terrence Lyons.
The Brookings Institution, 1998
The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: The System in Practice, 1986-2000
Malcolm D. Evans; Rachel Murray.
Cambridge University Press, 2002
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