Rosa Parks

Parks, Rosa Louise

Rosa Louise Parks, 1913–2005, American civil-rights activist, b. Tuskegee, Ala., as Rosa Louise McCauley. A seamstress and long-time activist-member of the Montgomery, Ala., chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), her Dec. 1, 1955, arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a municipal bus to a white man sparked the Montgomery bus boycott. This successful protest, which lasted just over a year, marked the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr., to national prominence as a civil-rights leader and provided the model for future nonviolent movement actions. Fired from her job and unable to find work, Parks moved in 1957 to Detroit, where she remained active in the civil-rights movement and worked (1965–88) as an aide to Congressman John Conyers. She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, Congress's highest honor, in 1999.

See her autobiography (1992); biography by D. Brinkley (2000) and J. Theoharis (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

The History Lesson from Rosa Parks; A Single Act of Responsibility Changes a Nation's Heart
Fields, Suzanne.
The Washington Times (Washington, DC), October 31, 2005
The Story Behind the Rosa Parks Story
Wiltenburg, Mary.
The Christian Science Monitor, February 2, 2001
Sitting Down to Take a Stand: Rosa Parks' Actions Advanced the Fight for Civil Rights
Huso, Deborah.
Success, September 2011
Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement
Bettye Collier-Thomas; V. P. Franklin.
New York University Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "'Tired of Giving In': The Launching of the Montgomery Bus Boycott" by Rosa Parks
Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Stewart Burns.
University of North Carolina Press, 1997
Rosa Parks: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement
El-Kati, Mahmoud.
Diversity Employers, Vol. 36, No. 2, February 2006
Rosa Parks: An Ordinary Woman, an Extraordinary Life
Jones, Stephanie J.
National Urban League. The State of Black America, January 1, 2006
NAACP Chairman Julian Bond's Eulogy of Rosa Parks Metropolitan AME Church, Washington, D.C. October 31, 2005
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The Crisis, Vol. 112, No. 6, November/December 2005
Hail and Farewell to Rosa Parks: 1913-2005
Chappell, Kevin.
Ebony, Vol. 61, No. 3, January 2006
Is Everybody Picking on Rosa Parks?
Mary Wiltenburg writer of The Christian Science Monitor.
The Christian Science Monitor, December 15, 2003
Remembering Rosa Parks: Recognizing a Contemporary Prophetic Act
Bush, Randall K.
Theological Studies, Vol. 65, No. 4, December 2004
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