conscription, compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samurai in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome, and aristocrats and their peasants or yeomen during the Middle Ages in Europe. In England, compulsory military service was employed on the local level in the Anglo-Saxon fyrd as early as the 9th cent. In the 16th cent. Machiavelli argued that every able-bodied man in a nation was a potential soldier and could by means of conscription be required to serve in the armed forces. Conscription in the modern sense of the term dates from 1793, when the Convention of the French Republic raised an army of 300,000 men from the provinces. A few years later, conscription enabled Napoleon I to build his tremendous fighting forces. Following Napoleon's example, Muhammad Ali of Egypt raised a powerful army in the 1830s. Compulsory peacetime recruitment was introduced (1811–12) by Prussia. Mass armies, raised at little cost by conscription, completely changed the scale of battle by the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The institution of conscription, which was increasingly justified by statesmen on grounds of national defense and economic stimulation, spread to other European nations and Japan in the 19th cent. At the outbreak of World War I, Great Britain adopted conscription and used it again in World War II; it was abolished in 1962. Though little used in the United States prior to the Civil War, conscription was used by both sides in that war and in most large-scale U.S. wars since, often with great controversy. Most of the important military powers of the 20th cent. have used conscription to raise their armed forces. China, because of its large population, has a policy of selective conscription. Impressment is the forcible mustering of recruits. It lacks the scope and bureaucratic form of conscription. Many countries throughout the world, such as Israel, have mandatory military service; a few allow for alternate civilian service or release for conscientious objectors. See also selective service.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Harvest of Fear: A History of Australia's Vietnam War
John Murphy.
Westview Press, 1994
Librarian’s tip: "Conscription, 1964" begins on p. 114
An Almost Universal Scheme of National Service in Australia in the 1950s *
Maclean, Pam.
The Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 52, No. 3, September 2006
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The French Canadians, 1760-1945
Mason Wade.
Macmillan, 1955
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XII "The Conscription Crisis"
Soldiers of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy: Army, State, and Society, 1800-1815
Frederick C. Schneid.
Westview Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "A National Army"
The British Working Class and Enthusiasm for War, 1914-1916
David Silbey.
Frank Cass, 2005
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "The Rush to Colours, Business as Usual, and the Coming of Conscription"
Dividing Ireland: World War I and Partition
Thomas Hennessey.
Routledge, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The Irish Convention and the Conscription Crisis, 1917-1918"
The Resurrection of Ireland: The Sinn Féin Party, 1916-1923
Michael Laffan.
Cambridge University Press, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of conscription begins on p. 128
Dismissing the Draft: Germany Debates Its Military Future. (World in Review)
Kanz, Martin.
Harvard International Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, Winter 2003
The Military and Society in Russia: 1450-1917
Eric Lohr; Marshall Poe.
Brill, 2002
Librarian’s tip: "Conscription and Its Discontents" begins on p. 450
Conscription versus Penal Servitude: Army Reform's Influence on the Brazilian State's Management of Social Control, 1870-1930
Beattie, Peter M.
Journal of Social History, Vol. 32, No. 4, Summer 1999
Conscription and Democracy: The Draft in France, Great Britain, and the United States
George Q. Flynn.
Greenwood Press, 2002
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