Philanthropy in America

philanthropy

philanthropy, the spirit of active goodwill toward others as demonstrated in efforts to promote their welfare. The term is often used interchangeably with charity. Every year vast sums of money are collected for invaluable philanthropic purposes, and an increasing number of people participate in the work of collecting money through highly organized campaigns, the purpose of which is fund-raising. In many countries philanthropy has been incorporated in government policy in the form of tax exemptions for contributions to charitable agencies. It has become so accepted that few now escape the demands of giving, and many important institutions are partly or wholly dependent on it.

In early times, charity was usually prompted by religious faith and helped to assure a reward in an afterlife, a notion found in Egypt many centuries before the Christian era. Throughout history, active participation in philanthropy has been a particular characteristic of Western societies. A traditional philanthropic ideal of Christianity is that of the tithe, which holds that one tenth of a person's income should go to charity. Charity is also important in Islam, Buddhism, and other religions. Foundations—institutions that distribute private wealth for public purposes—also have an ancient history.

At the end of the 19th cent. it was recognized that corporations could play a part in financing voluntary agencies when the Young Men's Christian Association set a new pattern for raising money: intensive drives over a short period of time, the use of sophisticated techniques to raise money, and an emphasis on corporation donations. Other voluntary agencies soon copied this pattern, and it is still the typical practice for large-scale fundraising. During World War I, coordination of effort became a trend in philanthropic activity. In the United States, this coordination took the form of Community Chests, which combined a number of charities under one appeal, now known as the United Way.

Today the organization and coordination of philanthropy has eliminated much of the spontaneity of giving. They have also brought about a more rational assessment of ability to give as well as the introduction of scientific methods of ascertaining community and national needs and of raising money. The focus has also shifted from the relief of immediate need to long-term planning to prevent future need.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2013, The Columbia University Press.

Selected full-text books and articles on this topic

Philanthropy in America: A History
Olivier Zunz.
Princeton University Press, 2012
The Future of Philanthropy: Economics, Ethics, and Management
Susan U. Raymond.
Wiley, 2004
Strategic Giving: The Art and Science of Philanthropy
Peter Frumkin.
University of Chicago Press, 2006
High Impact Philanthropy: How Donors, Boards, and Nonprofit Organizations Can Transform Communities
Kay Sprinkel Grace; Alan L. Wendroff.
Wiley, 2001
Philanthropy and Economic Development
Richard F. America.
Greenwood Press, 1995
Intelligent Giving: Insights and Strategies for Higher Education Donors
Jonathan P. Caulkins; Jay Cole; Melissa Hardoby; Donna Keyser.
Rand, 2002
The Poor Belong to Us: Catholic Charities and American Welfare
Dorothy M. Brown; Elizabeth McKeown.
Harvard University Press, 1997
FREE! The Charity Organization Movement in the United States: Study in American Philanthropy
Frank Dekker Watson.
Macmillan, 1922
In the Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America
Michael B. Katz.
Basic Books, 1996 (10th Rev. edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "The Theory and Practice of Scientific Charity"
The American Fund for Public Service: Charles Garland and Radical Philanthropy, 1922-1941
Gloria Garrett Samson.
Greenwood Press, 1996
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