Moral Combat: Good and Evil in World War II

Article excerpt

British historian Michael Burleigh offers a sweeping assessment of the ethical dilemmas posed by World War II, faced by everyone from world leaders to soldiers in foxholes.

For most Americans, World War II was the quintessential good war -

it had a clear, unambiguous purpose, was successfully concluded, and

led to a better world than would otherwise have existed. But it was

also the bloodiest event in human history and claimed somewhere in

the vicinity of 50 million lives.

With the exception of the voluminous literature on the Holocaust,

few authors have examined in detail the moral choices and ethical

dilemmas faced by those who were part of the conflict. And those that

have usually addressed a single issue or incident, such as the

morality of using the atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki or the

British decision to bomb Hamburg to rubble. (After seeing a film

showing the results of the raid, Churchill asked "Are we beasts?

Are we taking this too far?")

Moral Combat: Good and Evil in World War II, a new book by the

brilliant British historian Michael Burleigh goes well beyond the

rather narrow focus of most of the existing literature and offers a

sweeping, panoramic assessment of the ethical dilemmas facing

everyone from world leaders to soldiers in foxholes. This is a superb

work of scholarship with fresh insights on nearly every page that

will likely leave the reader asking hard and troubling questions long

after finishing it.

The volume is organized chronologically, but Burleigh dispenses with

the detailed assessment of military strategy and individual

engagements. Major battles are often described in a single, short

reference while relatively minor engagements or incidents are

generally given a lengthy treatment if they illustrate a broader

point. Among the topics considered in detail are the crushing of

Poland and the brutal subjugation of the Polish people; the Battle of

Britain and the Blitz; collaboration, cooperation, and resistance in

the occupied countries; the invasion of Russia; leadership tensions;

the day-to-day experiences of soldiers (in a chapter aptly titled

"We Were Savages"); the massacring of millions of civilians in

every theatre of the conflict; the Holocaust; the carpet bombing of

Germany and Japan; and the justice meted out by the victors once the

conflict had ended.

In a section entitled "Tenuous Altruism," Burleigh looks for

"individual instances of moral greatness" - in other words, he

looks for heroes. Unfortunately, it is a very short chapter. He

writes, "human goodness really did not triumph in the end.... The

tiny gleams of light provided by the stirring human interest dramas

of such as Schindler or Wallenberg are lost in the vast areas of

human darkness, shading from pitch black to generalized grey, that

defined the moral behavior of the time. …