To break glass ceilings, feminists of the past put career above all else. But a new generation of feminists isn't willing to sacrifice family for work. Instead, they're lobbying to make workplaces more family friendly.
Last week, Representative Carolyn Maloney (D) of New York and Senator Robert Menendez (D) of New Jersey reintroduced The Equal Rights Amendment on the floor of Congress. This is not a startling event - the bill has been introduced every session since 1972.
Maybe you're rolling your eyes at the mere mention of the ERA. Isn't that a throwback to '70s feminism? Hey, you've come a long way, baby. Don't we have enough gender equality already?
But anyone who thinks that is just wrong. Numbers released just this May by the National Association of Colleges and Employers show that women who are graduating from college this year will make 17 percent less than their male counterparts in their first jobs. And that's before those pesky questions of family and career balance are even on the table.
This is nothing new. A 2007 poll of Harvard graduating seniors found that the median first-year base salary for males was $60,000 compared to $50,000 for females - a gender wage shortfall of about 17 percent for some of the most talented young women in America. Over the course of a career, that gap can add up, meaning women miss out on potentially hundreds of thousands of dollars of earnings.
Why women earn less than men five decades after Equal Employment Opportunity laws goes to the heart of a misguided debate between two different generations of women over a basic but profound question: What is equality?
Feminists can have families
At the Yale campus where I'm a scholar, the junior female faculty are circulating a petition for more university-funded childcare. Some senior female faculty find that more than wishful thinking; they question a decision to have babies at a vulnerable career stage, when the emphasis should be on research and building credentials.
But even if those critics are right, how do we explain pay differentials right out of college? The answer has to do with the type of work people choose. Few graduating seniors from Ivy Leagues are having babies, but more women than men stay away from careers with punishing hours that undermine family time. Many women don't even apply for jobs that seem incompatible with a normal family life. In the 2007 Harvard study, over half of the gender wage gap vanished when controlling for the reality that more men than women chose careers in finance and IT where career success requires around- the-clock time commitment.
Solutions to the family problem include subsidized and accessible childcare, family-friendly working arrangements, and incentives for fathers to take parenting as seriously as women. Economists Marianne Bertrand, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz have shown that the gender wage gap is narrower in group medical practices, in which doctors can cover for one another's absences, than in the business world where a key to success is the continuous cultivation of client relationships.
Wall Street law and banking is not only a man's world, it is a world for men unburdened by family responsibilities. …