New Laws of '99 Put Focus on Children from Antismoking Rules to Driving Safety, States and Citiesexpand Families' Protections

Article excerpt

With the dawning of 1999, thousands of new laws go into effect around the nation - offering a freeze-frame look at American democracy in action.

These new laws, which provide a glimpse of the citizenry's current concerns, range from the sweeping to the quirky. Oregon, Washington, and Connecticut are boosting the minimum wage for all workers, while Massachusetts now has an official state polka song.

But one strong theme emerges from the laws that took effect Jan. 1: a desire to protect people - especially kids - from the effects of tobacco and alcohol, including drunken drivers. Many laws also try to safeguard children and families from other dangers - everything from inexperienced teenage drivers to abusive husbands. In this year of overflowing government coffers, there are also tax breaks galore. Car taxes are falling in California. And the cash-rich federal government bumped up the tax credit for each child from $400 to $500. This multitude of new laws "is all about government responding to what people want," says Cynthia Craft, editor of the Sacramento, Calif.-based StateNet Capitol Journal. In this cynical age, is government truly working for the good of people? "It actually happens sometimes," she says with a chuckle. To be sure, the new list of laws reads like a dream for conservative politicians. But far from being ultraconservative, the leadership in statehouses is typically "anchored in the political middle," says Tim Story of the National Conference of State Legislatures in Denver. "Moderate Republicans are in the leadership in statehouses, and it shows." One idea that seems to have bipartisan backing is to tighten regulations governing the sale and use of alcohol and tobacco. New York retailers will now lose their liquor licenses if caught making repeat sales to minors - even if the minors use fake IDs. In California, retailers can now seize fake IDs from minors. Connecticut liquor sellers must tag beer kegs with the buyer's name - an effort to enable punishment of adults who buy for minors. Drunken drivers also face stiffer punishments. In Washington, they face immediate suspension of their driver's licenses for a year if they refuse a breath test. Louisiana and Illinois now require repeat offenders to install Breathalyzers that prevent their cars from starting if there's too much alcohol on their breath. New Hampshire made it easier to try juveniles as adults if they're charged with negligent homicide while driving drunk. …