Few Choices for Moscow's Homeless Children ; Human Rights Advocates Call on Officials to Adopt a New Approach Tochild Welfare: Private Groups

Article excerpt

Fourteen-year-old Oksana Smirnova is a recent recruit to Russia's growing army of abandoned children. Experts say the numbers of these kids, trapped between a precarious street existence and official institutions that are sometimes worse, have swollen to crisis proportions.

Oksana and her sister Sasha, 11, have found temporary refuge at Island of Hope, one of the handful of private shelters for homeless children in Moscow. Sitting in its sparse playroom amid a few stuffed animals and an old Soviet-era TV, Oksana recounts her tale: The girls are from Tselenograd, in the former Soviet republic of Kazakhstan. Last year, their mother sold their small apartment and headed for Moscow. But along the way they were robbed and ended up living for weeks in a Moscow railway station.

One day police scooped up the two girls and took them to an isolyator, a medium-security holding tank for undocumented children. "It was a terrible place," says Oksana. "We were 30 sleeping in one room." Their mother eventually got them out and brought them to Island of Hope. "Our mother visits us here sometimes, but she has no chances to take us back," she says.

Moscow's Soviet-era propiska laws make it extremely difficult for outsiders to register for residence or work in the Russian capital. More than a million refugees and migrants are estimated to be living illegally here, under constant threat of deportation by police.

"Refugees from former Soviet countries are one major reason for the explosion of homeless children in recent years," says Revolt Pimenov, coordinator of the Island of Hope shelter. "There are other reasons as well. But in all cases, the negligence and indifference of the Russian government is an aggravating factor."

Since the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, family violence, alcoholism, poverty, and child abandonment have risen sharply. …