Charities Pick Up Where German State Left off ; 'Tis the Season for Giving, but in Germany, High Taxes and a Habit Of

Article excerpt

Amid the rush of the Christmas shopping season, a sound that has increasingly supplemented the cha-ching of cash registers has been the clang of spare change hitting the bottoms of Salvation Army collection pots. Americans are one of the world's most generous people, donating millions of dollars each year to philanthropic causes at home and abroad.

In Germany, however, while charities are consistently praised, they find it hard to tap into such a public spirit. With taxes claiming nearly half their paychecks, many Germans feel justified in expecting their government to be the sole caretaker of the needy. Gunther Haase, an auto mechanic in his early 50s, is typical. "Foundations can help," he says. "But the state has a job, and it has to fulfill that job."

The sentiment reflects a nation that has over the decades become accustomed to a social safety net that often precluded private philanthropy. But with that net unraveling under the pressures of a runaway budget deficit - parliament last month approved slashing $16 billion in pension and jobless benefits from next year's budget - there is growing demand for private initiative, whether it be donating to a university or homeless shelter, or volunteering at a library or soup kitchen.

German philanthropy boasts a tradition going back to the 10th century and flourished in the wealthy Hanseatic states during their commercial heyday. But economic crisis in the 1920's, followed by 12 years of Nazi rule, sapped people's inclination to give.

The postwar welfare state further atrophied the charitable spirit. In the former West Germany, citizens were coddled by generous welfare benefits while enjoying one of the world's highest standards of living. In East Germany, the Communist regime took care of everything, if not very well. In both cases, the welfare state dulled people's sense of a civil society.

'Dependence mentality'

"People ... expected the state to do everything. There is a strong dependence mentality here," says Barbara Ammlung, a Dresden lawyer who doubles as a volunteer fund-raiser with the city's community foundation, one of only three in the country.

Although nearly a third of Germany's 10,000 foundations were established this decade, they still play a marginal role in society compared with other developed European countries and the United States.

According to the German Donating Institute in Krefeld, for example, Americans made more than $80 billion in donations in 1997, compared with $5.7 billion given by Germans. Per capita, Americans give about $685 dollars per year compared with $97 in Germany. …