China's Corruption Crackdown Sifts out Select Targets ; A Wide-Ranging Trial and Execution of a Top Official Stop Short of Bona Fide Cleanup

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China's struggle against corruption reached new levels last week as the country executed one senior official and trials got under way in another major case.

On Thursday, Cheng Kejie, former vice chairman of the National People's Congress, was executed. Cheng was accused of amassing more than $5 million through corruption.

The People's Daily, a Communist Party mouthpiece, said the case "shows that corrupt elements have nowhere to hide, [and] before the law, all citizens are equal." Yet academics, legal experts, and even some critics within the party are skeptical that the current anticorruption campaign has the power to cleanse the government.

"No matter how high-profile the case, no matter how serious the punishment, they won't be able to do anything about corruption until they begin to introduce institutional reforms," says Merle Goldman, a professor of contemporary Chinese history at Boston University.

China must establish "some kind of electoral accountability, freedom of the press, and an opposition party - reforms that would ensure a system of checks and balances ... the kind of reforms that we associate with democracy," says Dr. Goldman.

The Communist Party, though, is trying hard to prove that it can contain corruption without compromising its grasp on power. Although the president and other officials increasingly proclaim the merits of the rule of law, there is never any doubt that the party - along with the politics that justify it - comes first.

The anticorruption drive fits squarely in the mold of all centrally planned political campaigns: It makes liberal use of propaganda to rally support for its cause, pick its targets, and control the debate, thereby legitimizing party leadership with each proclaimed success.

Aside from the routine exposures of low-level corruption and the occasional toppling of a senior official, the most conspicuous aspects of the anticorruption drive are exhibitions in major cities detailing the ignominious downfalls of hundreds of corrupt cadres - and a new movie called "Life or Death Decision."

The film, which first appeared in Beijing in mid-August, and is now required viewing for all party members, tells the story of the upstanding mayor of a fictional city who unravels a web of corruption, only to find that it implicates his own mentor and benefactor and even his wife. He makes the right "decision" and sends them all to jail, though tellingly only with the support of an even more senior party official.

By most accounts the movie is a success in its own right. …