Polish Town Confronts Its History ; an Expose Blaming Poles for a 1941 Massacre of Jews Forces a Dismantling of the Official

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A bell peels in a church steeple above a small square in the dreary hollow of Jedwabne, some 90 miles northeast of Warsaw.

For more than half a century, this rural town concealed a terrible secret. In the summer of 1941, shortly after Nazi troops invaded the country, the town's ethnic Poles turned on their Jewish neighbors. They assaulted and herded hundreds of them into a barn, dousing it with gas, and setting it ablaze. All told, 1,600 Jews died on that July day.

For decades, the official "truth" held that a handful of Poles had played a part in the pogrom, but that it was the Nazis who were mainly to blame. This version of events was chiseled in stone on a monument to the victims here.

But in recent months, the release of the book "Neighbors" and a television documentary have sparked unprecedentedly open discussion and soul-searching among Poles, forcing them to face uncomfortable truths hidden or hushed up during the Communist era. The evidence now coming out shows that they were not only victims during World War II, but victimizers as well.

In March, the memorial was carted away along with the whitewashed version of history, which was shattered by the publication of "Neighbors," by the Polish-born, American historian Jan Gross. His book, published in Polish last year - English this year - relies on eyewitness accounts to chronicle Polish culpability at Jedwabne. Some still doubt that the Poles acted alone, while others contend that Jedwabne was one piece of a wider systematic slaughter of Jews in the area at the time.

Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski, concerned that the controversy may set back efforts over the past decade to heal wounds between Poles and Jews, says his compatriots must face the truth. He has set aside July 10, the 60th anniversary of the massacre, for a nationwide commemoration, to include the unveiling of a new memorial.

"The Holocaust is coming to Eastern Europe," is the way Gross describes the unprecedented discussion that picked up in April when the airing of a two-part TV documentary beamed the troubling issue into the living rooms of millions of Poles. "Censorship was a fact of life under the Communists. Freedom of speech is relatively new. I think it is very healthy discussion. You have all of society taking part, in the press, on the streets, on the Internet in chat rooms."

"It's a cathartic discussion," adds Marian Turski, head of Warsaw's Association of the Jewish Historical Institute.

That debate has been heated at times, marked by nationalist rhetoric and, occasionally, anti-Semitism, highlighting the uneasy historical ties between Poles and Jews.

Last week, a prominent priest in the Baltic port of Gdansk was barred from the pulpit after placing in his church a display of a burned barn - a reference to Jedwabne - with a skeleton and signs reading "Jews killed Jesus Christ and prophets and also persecuted us."

Many Poles feel Jewish efforts focusing on their suffering during the war diminish the Poles' own, says Andrzej Richard, a sociologist at Warsaw's Central European University.

Three million Jews were killed during the Holocaust in Poland, which had the largest Jewish community in Europe at the time. About 3 1/2 million Poles died as well, as a result of the Nazi terror - many worked to death as slave laborers or killed in underground fighting. …