African-Americans' Heritage Set in Stone ; in the South, Monuments and Memorials to Black History, from Slavery to Civil Rights, Are Springing Up

Article excerpt

Across the South, movements to erect monuments and memorials in recognition of the African-American story from slavery to now are rising in steel and stone.

From Mississippi to South Carolina, Southerners are working to open museums and preserve prominent landmarks of African-American history. This comes despite a tight economy in which many states are cutting the budget for such cultural projects - and even as some states debate an ongoing Confederate flag issue and see a surging interest in "Southern pride."

The trend is driven by a younger generation wanting to face the past, older civil rights activists eager to honor what they fought for, and the economics of tourism in an age when race issues have a high public appeal.

"People are realizing that for years this [African-Americans] is a group of people who have been ignored," says Jim Walsmith, executive director of Historic Preservation Alliance of Arkansas. "It's time to save these places before they are torn down and recognize that this part of history cannot only be a learning tool but a tourism draw."

The memorials are being pushed in places where some of the most bitter civil rights battles were fought:

* At the Ole Miss campus in Oxford, Miss., school officials will erect a public-art project in 2002 to commemorate equal access to education in the state, while celebrating the 40th anniversary of the college's integration.

* Arkansas legislators decided this spring to honor Daisy Bates, a mentor to the nine black students who integrated Central High School in the 1957 desegregation battle, with a state holiday. It's the only holiday in the nation to honor an African-American woman.

* The Savannah, Ga., city council agreed this year to build a memorial to the slaves brought into port there.

* In March, South Carolina became the first state in the nation with a monument to black history on its capitol grounds - and the first state to officially recognize the African-American experience with a permanent memorial. Schoolchildren saved their pennies and churches took up donations to raise more than $1.1 million for the monument, where visitors can touch four rubbing stones from Congo, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Ghana. The belief is that to rub a stone from "home" can take one back in spirit.

Facing history

Impetus for the monuments comes from a variety of sources. In Mississippi, a state haunted by a violent civil rights past, historians are forcing the state to deal with history and its mistakes. They say ignoring African-American history affects the way people view the rest of the state's past.

In 1995, a group of students and academics, both African- American and white, gathered on the Ole Miss campus to lament the plentifulness of white symbols. …