Argentina's Clash of Democracy and Free Market

Article excerpt

Argentina's new president, Eduardo Duhalde, blames US-backed free- market policies for his country's economic crisis. Ex-President Carlos Menem says President Duhalde is incompetent. Conservative gurus declare that Argentina needs more, not less, free market.

Amid all the accusations and finger-pointing, one thing is clear: No one knows what to do. This bewilderment results from the reluctance of free-market advocates, international financial institutions, and the governments that support them to acknowledge the conflicting demands of electoral democracy and the free market.

The competing demands of politics and economics threaten other Latin American countries, too. Venezuela, one of the largest oil suppliers of the US, implemented free-market policies without regard to political fallout. Now, both its economic liberalization and democratic institutions are in jeopardy.

Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru nominally favor a free market, but don't have the political stability to support it. Even countries doing relatively well - Chile, Brazil, and Mexico - would find it difficult to reconcile free-market measures with stable politics in the case of an economic downturn. The dramatic and high-profile meltdown in Argentina, however, provides the clearest example of what can happen when both democracy and free-market policies are implemented without regard to the effect of each on the other.

Since 1983, Argentina has strived for both economic and political liberalization. Local markets were opened and undemocratic practices erased. With the Army in the barracks, public assets were privatized, inflation mastered, the peso pegged to the US dollar, and the government prevented from printing money.

Sound economic policy required fiscal restraint. But to remain viable, politicians needed money, so they borrowed - and borrowed. Foreign investors and international financial institutions kept lending. As the borrowing continued and the new economy failed to bring broad benefits, the gulf between what was economically desirable and what was politically attainable widened.

The privatization and liberalization of the Argentine market, wealthy in natural resources and human capital but too weak to compete internationally, followed an established pattern. International capital arrived, and public assets were transferred to private hands under terms that often reeked of corruption. Local industries were forced to compete with global prices, and cost control became the primary goal of production. …