Nigerian Islamists Veto Vaccines ; Boycott of Recent Polio Vaccine Campaigns Threatens Efforts to Eradicate the Disease by Year's End

Article excerpt

On a road out of Kano, the largest city in Nigeria's Islamic north, Ayo Bello sits by two dozen brightly colored tricycles built by the Physical Handicap Association of Nigeria, of which he is a member. The vehicles have hand-controlled pedals for people with leg disabilities, such as Mr. Bello, who was paralyzed by polio at age 6.

Kano is the center of the world's worst outbreak of the disease, but its government refuses to participate in an international inoculation program, claiming that the vaccines are contaminated.

"We need the vaccine," Mr. Bello says. "But only if the vaccine is safe."

His ambivalence reflects a deeply damaging tension between international health agencies based in Western countries and the Kano authorities, who apply a strict form of sharia, or Islamic law. Both sides are keen to play down the political and religious aspects of the dispute, but some of the strongest opposition to the vaccination campaign has come from Islamic leaders who say the alleged contamination is part of a Western plot to make Muslims infertile. The resulting deadlock highlights an isolationist tendency in parts of the ruling northern elite.

"Anything where it would mean joining the international community, they don't want it at all," says a Kano-based imam from western Nigeria who asks not to be named. "This is not a new thing for them; they have been doing it a long time."

The Kano state government has boycotted two four-day inoculation campaigns held in Nigeria during February and March, even though the vaccines have been used in the country's other 35 states and have been certified safe by the World Health Organization. Sule Ya'u Sule, spokesman for the Kano government, denies any political motivations and says a test by a scientific panel showed the vaccines were contaminated with dangerously high levels of female hormones.

International health officials worry that the boycott will undermine attempts to eradicate polio worldwide by the end of this year. The World Health Organization says Nigeria accounted for nearly half of the 782 confirmed cases of polio last year, and that the disease has spread to eight other countries in the region.

Muslim opposition to the vaccine

The position of the Kano government is endorsed by a number of Muslim leaders who are highly critical of Western motives and behavior.

Inside a small schoolroom with Arabic writing on the blackboard and "Saudi Arabia" inscribed above the door, Imam Hashim Abdulla Mohammed Salis claims polio vaccines elsewhere in the world have been infected with the HIV virus, although he cannot name the country affected. He dismissed reassurances given by Olusegun Obasanjo, the country's born-again Christian president, who urged Nigerians to accept the vaccine after it was declared safe by a national panel including government representatives, traditional rulers, scientists, and Islamic leaders.

"I know that Obasanjo is not a Muslim," says the imam. "Anything that Obasanjo says will not appease me."

Opposition to the vaccine has been strengthened by a 1996 controversy in Kano involving Pfizer, the US drug company. …