By Abraham McLaughlin writer of The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor
It's a sweltering morning in Chad's scrub-brush desert. A herd of goats grazes on tufts of green. Round huts bake in the strengthening sun.
Suddenly the goats scatter as gunfire fills the air. Chadian soldiers behind a row of machine guns unload on their target: a giant berm standing in for Al Qaeda. Villagers turn as a batallion of Chadian Army troops swoops in from the right. The thap-thap of their AK-47s joins the chorus as shots pound the dirt mound.
And 23 US Marines look on.
For six weeks they've been teaching 168 Chadian soldiers counterterrorism basics - surprise attacks, border patrolling, intelligence gathering, and more. This is the final exam.
"Lookin' good," says Maj. Paul Baker, the mission commander.
The training here in remote Chad is just one sign of how the US military is engaging Africa in the global terror war as never before. There are, for instance, joint US naval exercises with Nigeria this month. There are reported antiterror patrols along the Kenya-Somalia border. And there's the new expansion of the Chad program from a four-nation, $7 million project to a nine-country plan with an expected budget of up to $125 million. It aims to prevent terrorists from roaming in and around the Sahara desert.
We're "looking at Africa as a place of growth for the Marine Corps and the Department of Defense," says Major Baker, standing in his command post under a giant shade tree. There's growing evidence of terrorist activities on the continent. And there's a need to protect Africa's rapidly expanding oil industry. So the US military is paying attention.
From eight bullets to 122,000
The American presence is having a big impact around the region. Before the Marines arrived in Chad, the Chadians had nearly no real military experience. During their basic training each one shot just eight bullets - it's all the government could afford. Chad ranks 167th out of 177 nations on the 2004 United Nations Human Development Index. Per capita income is 73 cents a day.
The soldiers weren't much for marksmanship. "They couldn't hit a 15-foot berm from 20 meters away," marvels Baker. But in six weeks of US-sponsored training, they shot about 122,000 bullets. They've also gotten new US uniforms and 13 new Toyota pickups. It will all be used to patrol the vast open spaces in northern Chad. Back in March, Chadian troops - with help from a US surveillance plane - reportedly killed 42 Islamic fighters in the desert highlands of the north.
Troops in the nearby countries of Niger, Mauritania, and Mali have also received similar training and gear as the Chadians. And as part of the new Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative, troops in Senegal, Nigeria, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco will get US training and hardware, too - at a cost to the US of up to $125 million.
But why the American largesse?
All these nations are in and around the Sahara Desert and the Sahel, a band of land that's south of the big desert and that runs east to west Across Africa. These are vast, lawless lands where terrorists linked to Al Qaeda are known to operate - and where the region's large Muslim populations sometimes offer support or sympathy to extremists.
For instance, a man named Emad Abdelwahid Ahmen Alwan reportedly traveled across this part of Africa in 2002 recruiting and raising funds. …