An Immigrant Flood This Negev Desert Town Was Built for Immigrants, but the New Wave of Soviets Is Straining Resources. Series: THE NEW ISRAELIS. Soviet Jewish Immigrants. Part 5 of a 5-Part Series

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A SMALL Middle Eastern town in the middle of the desert, whose chess club is world-class and which boasts five youth orchestras, has to have something special.

Beersheba does. Russians. Tens of thousands of them.

Nearly one-quarter of the people who live in this prefabricated Negev Desert town come from the Soviet Union. In 1995, if predictions of Soviet immigration prove accurate, that proportion will apply to all of Israel.

Beersheba's mayor, Yitzhak Raager, is anxious to attract more Soviet Jews, whom he sees as the raw material for a development boom in the Negev.

"One day," he boasts, "we will be the largest city in Israel."

Immigration activists here, however, are fearful of the consequences of such rapid population growth. Already, they say, the influx of new arrivals has far outstripped the town's ability to house and employ them.

"The situation is getting worse day by day, and nobody knows what to do, nobody," laments Mark Moses, a Russian physicist who immigrated to Israel 19 years ago and is now deputy president of the Beersheba Newcomers' Association.

Unless jobs are created, he warns, "it will be a catastrophe - already we are beginning the catastrophe. People I knew one year ago who were smiling and happy to have come to Israel are shadows now. They look like they did in the Soviet Union."

Beersheba is a city built for immigrants, a sprawl of clumsy housing projects thrown up to shelter the North African Jews who poured into Israel in the early years of the state. The characterless architecture is matched only by the town planners' lack of imagination in giving neighborhoods names like "Sector D."

Twenty-three thousand Soviet Jews immigrated during the 1970s and 1980s and came to Beersheba. But the Negev was still losing people until the current wave of Soviet arrivals began flooding into Israel 18 months ago, according to Raager.

The mayor of the nearby town of Dimona, Mr. Raager says, was afraid he would have to destroy 400 apartments that had been standing empty and were attracting vagrants. "Now you cannot find a hut to house a cat, let alone a Russian family," Raager says. "With immigration and the change in our image, we have a new lease (on) life."

But that lease on life, and the lack of housing, have pushed rents through the roof, and many new immigrants are cramming several families into one apartment, Soviet-style, to save money. The roughest two-room apartment in the meanest part of town rents now for $350 a month, more than three-quarters of the government living allowance for a newly arrived couple.

Yet the immigrants keep coming, and in a bid to keep up with demand the city has assembled 1,250 mobile homes, stretched in endless uniform rows over the gritty desert outside Beersheba, which next month will house 2,500 families.

"It is a terrible undertaking to put 10,000 people in semi-huts with no air-conditioning in the summer and no heating in the winter," Raager acknowledges. …