Supreme Court Limits Death-Penalty Appeals the Justices Refuse to Allow a Lower Court to Hear Evidence That an Inmate Might Be on Texas's Death Row for a Crime Committed by His Brother

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EIGHT years after Leonel Torres Herrera was convicted of killing two Texas police officers one night in 1981, new evidence surfaced that strongly suggested he was the wrong man.

In strictly legal terms, the United States Supreme Court's Jan. 25 decision to uphold his death sentence was no surprise. His case did not raise the typical constitutional complaints over trial procedure or rules of evidence.

It raised a starker question: Is it constitutional to execute an innocent person?

The court's answer was mixed, but its judgment on Mr. Herrera was clear. The Supreme Court will not block Herrera's execution, and his other avenues of appeal are now exhausted, barring an act of clemency from the Texas governor.

The Herrera decision was 1 of 3 the court made on Jan. 25 in capital cases, each a further step in its long march toward swifter and more certain death penalties. The court has steadily reduced the opportunities to bring years of death-sentence appeals through the federal court system.

At least 6 of the 9 justices signed opinions on Jan. 25 asserting that executing Herrera would indeed be unconstitutional if he were persuasively innocent.

But only three of them - Justices Harry Blackmun,David Souter, and John Paul Stevens - thought the new evidence should be heard and evaluated in a district court. Justice Blackmun wrote in his strong dissent: "The execution of a person who can show that he is innocent comes perilously close to murder."

The other six justices averred that the evidence was not credible enough on balance to force a new trial. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor wrote most plainly: "Petitioner is not innocent, in any sense of the word."

No appeals court ever found fault with the trial that convicted Herrera. He was identified by two eyewitnesses at one murder. The car driven by the killer was registered to Herrera's girlfriend, and the keys were found in his pocket. Blood splatters of one victim's type were found on the car, Herrera's blue jeans, and his wallet. Herrera's Social Security card was found at the roadside site of the first murder.

When he was arrested, police found a letter in Herrera's pocket in which he strongly implied he had committed the first murder. After the first conviction, he pleaded guilty to the second.

But 10 years and many failed appeals later, Herrera's attorneys brought forward new evidence suggesting the murderer was Herrera's brother, Raul, who died in prison in 1984. …