How US Can Advance Reform in China with the White House and Congress Now in One Party's Hands, It Is Possible to Develop a More Coherent Policy toward Beijing

Article excerpt

US-CHINESE relations have been unsettled ever since Beijing cracked down on pro-democracy demonstrators in 1989. The United States Congress has twice tried to bring about human rights improvements by legislating conditions on China's "most favored nation" (MFN) trading privileges. But President Bush successfully vetoed the bills.

Once more, China's MFN status is at issue. President Clinton must decide before June 3 whether to extend MFN for another year. A changed political climate, the result of Democratic control of Congress and the White House, offers a chance for a productive debate.

China is not at the top of our foreign policy agenda, but key US interests are at stake. The economic ties alone are significant: We exported $8 billion worth of goods and services to China last year and imported $25 billion worth. But our interests go beyond trade. We care about China because of the role it can play in the world, for good or harm. We care about the Chinese government's treatment of its people.

China's internal scene presents a mixed picture. Political liberties are severely restricted. Some churches and ethnic minorities are tightly controlled. The legal system lacks due process, and torture is common in prisons. China lacks the foundation for a pluralistic and democratic system.

On the other hand, private enterprise continues to expand. Half of China's output is produced outside the state sector. Millions of Chinese are testing their skills against the requirements of the market. As the private sector expands, demands are likely to grow for a law to prevent arbitrary state interventions. Economic freedom may bring political freedom.

Chinese foreign policy also presents a mixed picture. China has supported US efforts to bring peace and stability to Korea and Cambodia. So far, it has not used its veto in the UN Security Council to frustrate American objectives. It is our fastest growing export market. Yet some of China's external actions threaten our interests. Beijing has transferred missile and other weapons technology to international outlaws. It has created barriers to imports. And the Chinese military is arming to a worrisome lev el.

As China prepares for the eventual transfer of power to the next generation, its leaders face fundamental questions about China's future. We face choices about how to promote our interests.

Our policy toward China has to be grounded on a balanced assessment of China and a recognition that China is modernizing. Our assumption should be that the forces in China supporting reform and a constructive global role are strong. Further, we need cooperation between the president and Congress and consultation with our allies. …