Washington State: National Lab on Crime Residents Have Passed an Initiative Mandating Life in Prison for People Convicted of a Third Violent Crime. but Officials Are Also Developing Strategies to Get at the Roots of Youth Violence

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A WEEK ago today, 16-year-old Zacariah John Spears was shot dead in front of Christmas shoppers by a youth-gang member at a suburban mall.

Mr. Spears was not involved in a gang, but police are investigating whether the friend he was with, who had gang ties, may have been the intended victim. This murder is the latest sign here of violence gone out of control.

Fueled by public concern over the dramatic rise in crime, Washington State is becoming a laboratory for crime-prevention strategies ranging from "lock 'em up" to "help them out."

Echoing national trends, juvenile violence in the state rose 92 percent between 1984 and 1992, almost twice as much as violent crime in general, according to a Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs index of four key offenses: murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.

During the same period a broader state crime index moved up more slowly: 29 percent for all ages, and 21 percent for juvenile crimes. Here in the state's largest city, this year has seen almost one-third more murders than 1992, many of them committed by young people with guns. Tough state initiative

The surge of violence is troubling in a state that traditionally tries to fix problems before they get out of hand. Efforts that emerge from Washington's mix of liberal and conservative advocates promise to be closely watched nationwide, since crime recently polled higher than health care or jobs as the issue of top national concern.

One big step came last month, when Washington residents voted 3 to 1 in favor of Initiative 593, mandating life in prison for people convicted of a third serious violent offense.

The "three strikes and you're out" measure will affect primarily adult criminals, who, despite the rise of youth crime, still account for almost 93 percent of the state's most-violent crimes. A juvenile can earn a "strike" if tried as an adult.

Dave LaCourse, a leading campaigner for 593, says the initiative's most important message is that state residents want to do more than talk about stopping crime. He says that he plans activism on juvenile justice issues this year.

The coming months will signal the degree to which the momentum of 593 will be channeled into further anticrime measures here.

Among the steps under discussion by government bodies:

* Gov. Mike Lowry (D), who opposed 593, is talking up a "youth agenda" that he says will be his top priority for the legislative session starting in January. The program will blend tougher juvenile justice and gun control with a stepped-up effort to uproot the seeds of violence through an advertising campaign, anger-management and mentoring programs in schools, and job and recreation opportunities for kids. Some state lawmakers are working up their own proposals.

* Newly reelected Seattle mayor Norm Rice, who was challenged on the crime issue by tougher-than-thou challenger David Stern, is offering ideas similar to Mr. Lowry's, including expanded services for families and teens and getting guns off the streets. "The only way to stop violence is by doing both," Mr. Rice asserted in delivering his city budget this fall. He is moving to appoint a new police chief, Norman Stamper from San Diego, a long-time advocate of close police-community relations.

* To help students protect themselves without endangering lives, one school board is considering allowing children to carry pepper gas to spray at attackers.

The day after the Nov. 2 election, the National Rifle Association described the passage of Initiative 593 and other NRA-backed measures as a sign that Americans were rightly choosing stringent sentences as a more valuable deterrent to crime than gun control.

"Yesterday Americans ... rejected 20-year-old failed solutions like gun control and alternatives to prison," NRA chief Wayne LaPierre Jr. said. "They voted for tougher prison sentences and the abolition of parole in Virginia, a tough three-time-loser law in Washington State, and prison building and an end to bail for dangerous criminals in Texas. …