Can World Aid Agencies Be Politically Neutral? Groups Question Whether Humanitarian Needs Outweigh Ethical Issues

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Central Africa's refugee crisis has sparked aid agencies to question their uncomfortable role on the front line of world conflicts.

For 2-1/2 years, the United Nations maintained camps for Rwandan refugees in Zaire and Tanzania that doubled as bases for Rwandan Hutu militias, who used them to stage cross-border raids and hold thousands of refugees virtually hostage. This has prompted soul searching about the ethics of increasingly politicized aid work.

The camps have broken up. Some 600,000 refugees have returned from Zaire. Thousands more are streaming back from Tanzania. And aid groups are standing back to weigh the impact on their multimillion-dollar efforts. Doctors Without Borders called a high-level meeting in Paris last Thursday to discuss the issue. Oxfam and Save the Children are taking a particularly critical look at the use of resources. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has heightened its examination of how to adapt to the changing nature of conflict. "This is a turning point. The debate goes wider than {Central Africa}. It has to do with the aid agencies' increasingly prominent role since the cold war ended," says Samantha Bolton of Doctors Without Borders. Much of the debate centers around whether the aid agencies perpetuated the crisis by feeding the militias as well as the masses. Aid agencies privately admit to such inadvertent complicity elsewhere. Aid to Sudan has helped the rebels' fight there. In Angola, rebels were fattened by the UN during their struggle from 1992 to 1994. The Central Africa crisis illustrates how aid groups have trouble promoting humanitarian missions without a political mandate to solve the problems. The events also force them to address criticism that they may have prolonged the crisis rather than provided relief. Since Ethiopia's famine in the mid-1980s, aid agencies have been thrust into a highly visible position. Aid groups used the media to raise funds, becoming a huge industry. In turn, emergencies have often become media circuses. Aid agencies are often forced to fill a political vacuum caused by the West's reluctance to get involved in peacekeeping. Many aid groups complain too much is expected of them, and that they must take the rap for governments' lack of political will. "Aid agencies are sometimes a fig leaf for lack of international action. You can attack the fig leaf, but if it drops off, there's nothing," says Peter Kessler of the UN refugee organization, UNHCR. In the case of Central Africa, the UNHCR and the World Food Program (WFP) promised to help anyone in need when an estimated 1. …