The Economic and Social Foundations of European Civilization

By Alfons Dopsch | Go to book overview

CONTENTS
CHAP. PAGE
INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGLISH EDITIONxi
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE FOOTNOTESxiii
I. THE INFLUENCE OF CONTEMPORARY MOVEMENTS ON HISTORICAL RESEARCHI

The catastrophic theory of the Italian Humanists--The French era of Enlightenment = Boulainvilliers, Montesquieu, and Voltaire--Guizot--German agrarian history--J. Möser and the Mark--K. D. Hüllmann's manorial theory --K. F. Eichhorn's Deutsche Staats- und Rechtsgeschichte--The theory of Germanic freedom, Rogge--Guizot's picture of society--Augustin Thierry-- Jakob Grimm--Beseler's principle of association--Wilda and von Sybel emphasize the state--G. Waitz's Constitutional History--Gaupp--Olufsen and G. Hanssen --Kemble--G. Landau and G. L. v. Maurer-- F. Thudichum--P. Roth's political theory--Gierke's association theory--R. Sohm's criticisms--Meitzen's study of field systems--Research into place-names: W. Arnold--S. Riezler--Fustel de Coulanges and the evidence of historical sources--The Sociological theory: Sumner Maine--Laveleye--P. Violet--Geffroy--Morgan--Their opponents: von Inama-Sternegg--Denman W. Ross--G. Kaufman, Thévenin, and R. Hildebrand--E. Mayer--The old hypotheses untenable--New auxiliary sciences.

II. THE SO-CALLED "EARLIEST" PERIOD (CÆSAR AND TACITUS)30

The natural environment of European culture--Unforested land--The primeval forest--The landscape in Cæsar and Tacitus--The stage of civilization reached by the peoples of Central Europe at the beginning of the Christian era --Settled agriculture--Reliability of Cæsar--Communal ownership of the soil-- --State socialism--Tacitus' Germania--Typological treatment and common sources--No communal ownership--Changes of settlement--The occupatio agrorum--Agrarian economy of the Germans = field-grass husbandry--Individual ownership of the soil--Communal cultivation--No attribute of free association --Common routine of cultivation and redistribution of strips--The Mark- association--No communal economy--No free use in the Mark--Co-existence of communal and individual economy--The social basis of the Mark-association theory--Existence of manorialism (Grundherrschaft)--Not all Germans were landlords--Only the leaders--Influence of the "following" on settlement.

III. ROMANS AND GERMANS IN THE AGE OF THE MIGRATIONS48

The mistakes of historians--Natural and artificial reasons for the migrations --These already in progress before the time of Cæsar--Settlement of Germans within the Empire by the Romans--Excavations--Influx of Germans into the army and the administration, colonization--Their employment as household servants--Their influence on Roman fashions--No complete destruction of Roman culture (continuity of development on the Main)--Domain land--The Neckar district--North-West Germany--The πόλεις of Ptolemy--Westphalia --Friemersheim--The place-names with suffiix -weiler--Remains of Roman civilization--Not merely smaller or mountain settlements--Rhætia and the Tyrol --Bavaria--Patron Saints--Domain land (royal palaces)--Noricum--Bias of the Vita Severini--The walch places--Barschalken--Finds of coins--Pottery --Wheel ornamentation--Household utensils and tools--The glass manufacture --Late Roman industrial art--Anthropological evidence--The relations between Romans and Germans in the towns--The πόλεις of Ptolemy (second century) and Herodian (third century)--Development in detail = Cologne--Neuss, Düren, Andernach--Mainz--Frankfurt-am-Main--Worms--Ladenburg--Trier --Metz--Strassburg--Basel, Chur, and Constance--Kempten--Augsburg-- Regensburg--Passau--Salzburg--falsifications of history--Lauriacum --Vienna--Binnen-Noricum--General survival of the towns--The meaning of the term barbari--The nature of existing sources (writings of Catholic bishops of noble and cultured families who were also great landowners)--The barbari were not uncivilized--Conservative policy of the Germans towards Roman institutions--The peculiar position of Roman writers in the transition period.

-v-

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