In the course of carrying this project to fruitionI have acquired many debts. To Professor Constantin Fasolt of the University of Chicago I owe the original suggestion that I write a short book onracism inworld historical perspective. Although I did not in the end fulfill his hope that I would contribute such a volume to a series he edits, I would not have been emboldened to undertake something of this breadth without his initial encouragement. I want to thank the Princeton University Public Lectures Committee and Professor Nancy Weiss Malkiel, Dean of the Faculty, for inviting me to give the series of lectures on which this book is based. Brigitta van Rheinberg of Princeton University Press guided this work from the beginning and made valuable recommendations concerning structure and emphasis. Providing very helpful critiques of all or part of the manuscript at various stages of development were BenjaminBraude, SeanDobson, JohnCell, NormanNaimark, David Nirenberg, John Torpey, Eric Weitz, Howard Winant, and John Worth. These eminent scholars of course bear no responsibility for any errors that remain. David Holland provided invaluable assistance in helping me to prepare the manuscript for publication.