For an overview of the most significant cases of corporate malfeasance, see Russell Mokhiber, Corporate Crime and Violence (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988). The dangers of confronting
authority are presented in a provocative essay by Deena Weinstein, Bureaucratic Opposition (New
York: Pergamon Press, 1979). The demand for conformity in industry is discussed in Robert Jackall, Moral Mazes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority (New York: Harper & Row, 1974).
Norman Bowie, Business Ethics (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982), p. 143.
While it is virtually impossible to draw a random sample of whistleblowers, several surveys reveal
a similar profile to the group we studied. Karen L. Soeken and Donald R. Soeken, "A Survey of
Whistleblowers: Their Stressors and Coping Strategies," in Senate Committee on Governmental
Affairs, Hearings on S.508 before the Subcommittee on Federal Services, Post Office, and Civil
Service, 100th Cong., 1st sess., 20 and 31 July 1987, pp. 538-48; Lea P. Stewart," 'Whistle Blowing':
Implications for Organizational Communication," Journal of Communication 30 (Autumn 1980):
90-101. Bill Bush, the informal archivist of the whistleblower movement, has collected about 1,600
cases of whistleblowers throughout the country, but there is no analysis of this large sample.
For an insightful analysis of the lure of the success dream in American society, see Michael Lewis, The Culture of Inequality (New York: New American Library, 1979). For a discussion of the
requirement to disclose lawless acts, see Kenneth D. Walters, "Your Employees' Right to Blow the
Whistle," Harvard Business Review 53 (July-August 1975): 26-34, 161-62. Sissela Bok, "Whistle‐
blowing and Professional Responsibility," New York University Education Quarterly 11 (Summer
1980): 2-10. Louis Clark, "Blowing the Whistle on Corruption: How to Kill a Career in Washington," Barrister 5 (Summer 1978): 10-19.
Frederick Elliston, John Keenan, Paula Lockhart, and Jane van Schaick, Whistleblowing Research: Methodological and Moral Issues (New York: Praeger, 1985), p. 26; James S. Bowman,
"Whistle-Blowing in the Public Service: An Overview of the Issues," Review of Public Personnel
Administration 1 (Fall 1980): 17. Whistleblowers, in essence, are not alienated from the system when
they begin their internal protest. For an important effort to explore that concept, see Ada W. Finifter,
ed., Alienation and the Social System (New York: Wiley, 1972). Advice to prospective whistleblowers
abounds. See Government Accountability Project, A Whistleblower's Guide to the Federal Bureaucracy (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Policy Studies, 1977). Peter Raven-Hansen, "Dos and Don'ts
for Whistleblowers: Planning for Trouble," Technology Review 82 (May 1980): 34-44. Myron Peretz
Glazer and Penina Migdal Glazer, "Whistleblowing," Psychology Today, August 1986, pp. 36-43.
The meaning of community is probed in a powerful study by Kai T. Erikson, Everything in Its
Path (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976).
Thomas Whiteside, The Investigation of Ralph Nader (New York: Arbor House, 1972).
A. Ernest Fitzgerald, The High Priests of Waste (New York: W. W. Norton, 1972).
"Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident," Washington, D.C., 6 June 1986, chap. 6, esp. pp. 123-24.
Trudy E. Bell and Karl Esch, "The Fatal Flaw in Flight 51-L," Spectrum 24 (February 1987):
38. This article is one of the most comprehensive overviews of events leading up to the Challenger