Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry - Vol. 2

By Justin D. Call; Eleanor Galenson et al. | Go to book overview

11
Developmental Lines and
Infant Assessment

Phyllis Tyson, Ph.D.

The enormous increase in attention to infancy during the last two decades coincides with an intensifying quest for developmental origins of later personality configurations. There is a growing conviction that a baby's early experience affects the development of attitudes, fears, anxieties, conflicts, wishes, expectations, and patterns of interacting with others. Wide differences between children may reflect not only their genetic and temperamental differences, but also differences in early experience with caregivers; the resultant influences on personality development in turn may affect neurobiological patterning, making it impossible later to separate the effects of earliest experiences and genetic factors (Greenacre, 1941; James, 1960). If individual differences do indeed result from divergent patterns of endowment and experience beginning from earliest infancy, questions arise as to how early divergent patterns can be identified as they emerge.

The measurement of unfolding maturational processes was begun over sixty years ago by Gesell, Cattell, and Bayley, who constructed infant tests on the presumption that the motive force of development was provided by genetic factors. A strong correlation between maturational precocity or delay and intelligence was assumed, together with a genetic conception of intelligence. The study of the development of mental and motor competence thus dominated child psychology during the first several decades of this century. The infant was seen as a socially isolated organism impelled by inevitable maturational forces, and research was directed toward correlating developmental quotients on infant tests with later IQ scores, though with disappointing results. From a medical viewpoint, the newborn was believed to function only at a brainstem level of nervous organization (Brazelton, 1983; Peiper, 1963). Consequently, neurological examinations were stereotyped assessments of reflex behavior from which only the grossest of abnormalities were diagnosed.

In the 1940s and 50s, psychoanalytic theory, with its emphasis on the early roots of later neurosis, began to have increasing impact on the way in which the infant was viewed. Early psychoanalytic ideas gave a central role to the drives. The infant was thought to develop an attachment to his mother as a consequence of her satisfying his hunger or relieving his discomfort. Attention was therefore directed to duration of nursing, characteristics of weaning, age and method of toilet training, attitudes toward masturbation, and the like. However, with the work of Spitz, Winnicott, Bowlby, and Mahler, another shift took place. Spitz (1945), after observations of hospitalized or in

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 564

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.