Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2

By Raymond Aron; Richard Howard et al. | Go to book overview

I
Logical and Nonlogical Actions

OUR SECOND AUTHOR, Vilfredo Pareto, involves us in a change of intellectual climate and of language; I shall try to change my style accordingly.

As our point of departure, let us take Durkheim's statement: "We must choose between God and society." What would Pareto have had to say on hearing a statement like this? He would have begun by smiling: "What a magnificent illustration of what I explained in my Treatise on General Sociology: the derivations are rapidly transformed but the residues are relatively constant." Later I shall explain precisely what residues and derivations are. But, in simple language, residues are the sentiments most frequently present in the human consciousness, and derivations are the intellectual systems of justification with which individuals camouflage their passions or give an appearance of rationality to propositions or acts which have none. Man as seen by Pareto is at the same time unreasonable and reasoning. Men rarely behave in a logical manner, but they always try to convince their fellows that they do.

According to Pareto, the notion of God is not logico-experimental; no one has had an opportunity to observe God. Consequently, if a man wants to be a scientist, he must dismiss such notions, which by

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Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction i
  • ÉMile Durkheim *
  • I - De la Division Du Travail Social 11
  • II - Le Suicide 24
  • III - Les Formes éLéMentaires de la Vie Religieuse (1) 35
  • IV - Les Formes éLéMentaires de la Vie Religieuse (2) 47
  • V - Las RèGles de la MéThode Sociologique 59
  • VI - Socialism 70
  • VII - Philosophy and Morality 82
  • Vilfredo Pareto *
  • I - Logical and Nonlogical Actions 101
  • II - Residues 116
  • III - Residues and Derivations 128
  • IV - From Analysis to Synthesis 138
  • V - Elites and Cycles of Mutual Dependence 148
  • VI - The Significance of Pareto's Work 160
  • VII - Final Remarks on Pareto 169
  • Max Weber *
  • I - The Conception of Science 179
  • II - Science and Action 188
  • III - Historical Causality and Sociological Causality: the Ideal Types 197
  • IV - Philosophy of Values and Sociology of Religion 205
  • V - The Sociology of Religion: Economy and Society 220
  • VI - Political Sociology 233
  • Conclusion 253
  • Bibliographies 265
  • Index 269
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