Logical and Nonlogical Actions
OUR SECOND AUTHOR, Vilfredo Pareto, involves us in a change of intellectual climate and of language; I shall try to change my style accordingly.
As our point of departure, let us take Durkheim's statement: "We must choose between God and society." What would Pareto have had to say on hearing a statement like this? He would have begun by smiling: "What a magnificent illustration of what I explained in my Treatise on General Sociology: the derivations are rapidly transformed but the residues are relatively constant." Later I shall explain precisely what residues and derivations are. But, in simple language, residues are the sentiments most frequently present in the human consciousness, and derivations are the intellectual systems of justification with which individuals camouflage their passions or give an appearance of rationality to propositions or acts which have none. Man as seen by Pareto is at the same time unreasonable and reasoning. Men rarely behave in a logical manner, but they always try to convince their fellows that they do.
According to Pareto, the notion of God is not logico-experimental; no one has had an opportunity to observe God. Consequently, if a man wants to be a scientist, he must dismiss such notions, which by