Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2

By Raymond Aron; Richard Howard et al. | Go to book overview
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III
Residues and Derivations

PARETO DEFINES class 4 of his residues as follows:

This class consists of residues related to social life. Residues related to discipline may also be included here if one agrees that the corresponding emotions are reinforced by life in society. In this connection, it has been observed that all domestic animals except the cat lived in society when they were wild.

Moreover, society is impossible without discipline, and consequently the establishment of sociability and of discipline necessarily have some points of contact.

Class 4, residues related to society and discipline, has some connection with class 2, persistence of aggregates, although the definitions are different and in certain respects the classes do differ.

To clarify this class of residues, I shall quickly review the different genera distinguished by Pareto. The first is that of "special societies." Pareto is alluding to the fact that all men tend to create associations, especially voluntary associations, in addition to the groups in which they are born. These associations tend to arouse sentiments which cause their existence to continue. A simple example is that of the athletic association. When I was a young man, Parisians of certain districts were either fans of the Racing Club de France or fans of the Stade Français. Athletic associations are examples of special societies;

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