Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2

By Raymond Aron; Richard Howard et al. | Go to book overview

IV
From Analysis to Synthesis

BEFORE GOING ON to an examination of the synthetic theory of society, I should like to pause for a moment over a passing remark of Pareto's which clarifies the relation between his and Comte's conceptions of modes of thought.

What, according to Pareto, is the essence of non-logico-experimental thought? Ordinarily it begins with certain facts, but then, instead of going back to properly experimental principles (like residues), it goes back to pseudo-experimental principles—this is the second phase of the non-logico-experimental mode of thought. In the case of today's intellectuals the third phase, after the pseudo-experimental principles, is marked by sentimental or metaphysical abstractions like democracy, right, solidarity, and other abstract formulas from which the authors deduce whatever conclusions appeal to them. Finally, the fourth phase, in certain cases, is the personification of these sentimental and metaphysical abstractions; instead of society or solidarity, God is invoked.

For men of learning, the fourth, the phase of personification, is the one furthest removed from experimental facts. However, for another, less educated category of men, the order of phases 3 and 4 is reversed: the invocation of personal forces or of divinity seems closer to experi

-138-

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Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction i
  • ÉMile Durkheim *
  • I - De la Division Du Travail Social 11
  • II - Le Suicide 24
  • III - Les Formes éLéMentaires de la Vie Religieuse (1) 35
  • IV - Les Formes éLéMentaires de la Vie Religieuse (2) 47
  • V - Las RèGles de la MéThode Sociologique 59
  • VI - Socialism 70
  • VII - Philosophy and Morality 82
  • Vilfredo Pareto *
  • I - Logical and Nonlogical Actions 101
  • II - Residues 116
  • III - Residues and Derivations 128
  • IV - From Analysis to Synthesis 138
  • V - Elites and Cycles of Mutual Dependence 148
  • VI - The Significance of Pareto's Work 160
  • VII - Final Remarks on Pareto 169
  • Max Weber *
  • I - The Conception of Science 179
  • II - Science and Action 188
  • III - Historical Causality and Sociological Causality: the Ideal Types 197
  • IV - Philosophy of Values and Sociology of Religion 205
  • V - The Sociology of Religion: Economy and Society 220
  • VI - Political Sociology 233
  • Conclusion 253
  • Bibliographies 265
  • Index 269
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