End of the Honeymoon: 1965–1975
component of the research conducted in the United States; by the end of
the decade, the establishment was under siege.
By 1965 the science establishment consisted of twenty federal funding agencies, fifty or so private and state universities with large research faculties and graduate student bodies, and several industrial laboratories also pursuing basic research. Laboratory facilities in many universities, neglected during WWII, had been remodeled by federal grants after the war. Facilities that were beyond the financial capability of a single university—laboratories with new, specialized apparatus such as particle accelerators, astronomical observatories with advanced technology telescopes, and hospitals with elaborate diagnostic equipment—were built and subsidized annually to provide U.S. and foreign scientists with modern research equipment. In some instances, the facilities were operated by associations of universities that were responsible for staffing, for equitable use of the facility by qualified scientists throughout the nation, and for the quality of the research produced. The facilities themselves remained the property of the federal