|Affirmative action: Refers to programs in the public and private sectors that seek to overcome the legacy of discrimination against minorities and women. While the courts have upheld the constitutionality of affirmative action, recently they have narrowed the scope and reach of many affirmative action plans.|
|Birmingham demonstrations: In the spring of 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the SCLC organized massive protests against racial discrimination in Birmingham, Alabama. These protests garnered national attention and sympathy for the civil rights movement and helped convince President Kennedy to call for sweeping civil rights legislation.|
|Black Muslims: Name given to the Nation of Islam, the black nationalist and religious group founded by W. D. Fard in the 1930s and led by Elijah Muhammad (Elijah Poole). The Black Muslims'most famous adherent was Malcolm X. In 1964 Malcolm X resigned from the Nation of Islam, although he remained a Muslim. Another of the Nation's prominent leaders was Louis Farrakhan (born Louis Eugene Walcott). Following Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, the Nation split into two factions, with Farrakhan taking control of one of them and Muhammad's son, Imam Warith Deen Muhammad, taking control of the other.|
|Black Panther Party: In October 1966, Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in Oakland, California. The Panthers symbolized the rising black power movement of the late 1960s. The Panthers' "Ten Point Program" demanded decent housing and education as well as control of their own communities by African Americans. To this end, the Panthers armed themselves and monitored police activities. The Panthers|
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Publication information: Book title: The Civil Rights Movement. Contributors: Peter B. Levy - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1998. Page number: 199.
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