“Her Rightful Place in the New Scheme
Native American Women's Journalism in the
The Indian girl of today lives in a very different environment from that of her great-grandmother. Since the allotment of land in severalty the chances are that the girl lives with her parents on their allotment away from any other people. The rest of the tribe are also scattered, each family on its own allotment, missing the old environment and companionship of the community life and lacking the education and training for appreciating and using the new to advantage. … the girl of today is baffled and confused, and is struggling, consciously or unconsciously, to find her rightful place in the new scheme of things.
—Ella Cara Deloria
Native American women journalists argued for incorporation through a wide range of rhetorical strategies during the Dawes Era, attempting to keep in play a dialectic between integration and separatism, cultural adaptation and preservation. In writing that represents the contradictions of its time, Native women advocated both Pan-Indianism and many assimilationist policies, including citizenship, mainstream education, or allotment. Yet while many of their articles reproduced dominant discourses of assimilation and reform, when taken together they also significantly altered those discourses. Rejecting claims about their racial and cultural inferiority, they articulated both the promise and difficulty of attaining equality in U.S. society. At the same time, Native women journalists affirmed a dynamic Pan-Indian politics.
Not surprisingly, this complexity of purpose is grounded in a set of complex institutional affiliations. Many of the women writing journalism in English attended, were affiliated with, and wrote for the journals of off-reservation boarding schools, which flourished from General Richard Henry Pratt's founding of Carlisle in 1879 to the Meriam