The Sacred and the Secular University

By Jon H. Roberts; James Turner | Go to book overview
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For expressions of this general view, see, for example, George M. Marsden, The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief (New York, 1994); Julie A. Reuben, The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality (Chicago, 1996); Laurence R. Veysey, The Emergence of the American University (Chicago, 1965); Burton J. Bledstein, The Culture of Professionalism: The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America (New York, 1976); Daniel J. Wilson, Science, Community, and the Transformation of American Philosophy, 1860–1930 (Chicago, 1990), 3; Larry Owens, “Pure and Sound Government: Laboratories, Gymnasia, and Playing Fields in the Nineteenth-Century Search for Order,” Isis 76 (1985): 182; Richard Hofstadter and C. DeWitt Hardy, The Development and Scope of Higher Education in the United States (New York, 1952), 3.
Marsden, Soul of the American University, 31.
It is not easy to draw confident inferences about what students were actually taught in classrooms, for while student notes often record effectively enough the subject matter described in the course titles, they had a practical orientation that was ill calculated to reproduce often offhand material relating to a faculty member's underlying philosophy, theology, and methodology. This makes it difficult to ascertain the extent to which professors' published work on issues relating to ontological, epistemological, methodological, and theological concerns reflected positions that they articulated within the classroom. Still, it seems unlikely that this work radically dissented from perspectives and methodological approaches presented in the classroom. Accordingly, the discussion of the natural and human sciences in this book draws heavily, though not exclusively, on published sources.
Henry P. Tappan [1851], cited in American Higher Education: A Documentary History, ed. Richard Hofstadter and Wilson Smith, 2 vols. (Chicago, 1961), 2: 506–507 (quotation on 506); Winton U. Solberg, “The Conflict between Religion and Secularism at the University of Illinois, 1867–1894,” American Quarterly 18 (1966): 186–189. For the relationship between churches and higher education, see the often-differing perspectives presented by William C. Ringenberg, “The Old-Time College, 1800–1865,” in Making Higher Education Christian: The History and Mission of Evangelical Colleges in America, ed. Joel A. Carpenter and Kenneth W. Shipps (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1987), 77–97; Mark A. Noll, “The Revolution, the Enlightenment, and Christian Higher Education in the Early Republic,” in ibid., 56–76; Mark A. Noll, “Christian Colleges, Christian Worldviews, and an Invitation to Research,” in William C. Ringenberg, The Christian College: A History of Protestant Higher Education in America (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1984), 1–36; Howard Miller, The Revolutionary College: American Presbyterian Higher Education 1707–1837 (New


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