10
Religious Systems

IN describing the Irish and Welsh vernacular sources for Celtic religious beliefs, the Irish scholar Proinsias MacCana, in a memorable phrase, referred to the 'fertile chaos of the insular tradition'. 'Fertile chaos' perfectly characterizes the enormously rich array of partial and confusing evidence available to us from a wide variety of sources reflecting on the religious beliefs of Celtic peoples. It may fairly be said that there is more, varied, evidence for Celtic religion than for any other aspect of Celtic life. The only problem is to be able to assemble it in a systematic form which does not too greatly oversimplify the intricate texture of its detail.

The Greek and Roman texts provide a number of pertinent observations, but these are at best anecdotal, offered largely as colourful background by writers whose prime intention was to communicate other messages. The most comprehensive account is that given by Caesar in his description of Gaulish society. Though useful, its summary nature could lead to confusion if it was not balanced against other evidence. Similarly the immensely rich vernacular literature of the Insular Celts must be approached in the awareness that Celtic religion was not necessarily consistent across Europe, nor was it unchanging. The very 'Insular' nature of the sources and the fact that what comes down to us has passed through the emasculating filter of a Christian monastic perspective demand particular care when such material is used as a basis for generalization.

The archaeological record produces an equally varied mix of data. Iconography in the form of stone and wood sculptures is not particularly plentiful, but, if Celtic art in its broader sense is taken into account, as it must be, the variety of symbols and images is greatly multiplied. In addition to this we have evidence for belief systems embedded in burial practice, in a great number of votive deposits, and in religious structures such as shrines and shafts. From this huge mass of disparate evidence, sometimes distorted and usually partial, some semblance of the religious systems of the Celts can be reconstructed.

-183-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Ancient Celts
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Colour Plates ix
  • 1 - Visions of the Celts 1
  • 2 - The Reality of the Celts 20
  • 3 - Barbarian Europe and the Mediterranean 39
  • 4 - The Migrations 68
  • 5 - Warfare and Society 91
  • 6 - The Arts of the Migration Period 111
  • 7 - Iberia and the Celtiberians 133
  • 8 - The Communities of the Atlantic FaçAde 145
  • 9 - The Communities of the Eastern Fringes 168
  • 10 - Religious Systems 183
  • 11 - The Developed Celtic World 211
  • 12 - The Celts in Retreat 235
  • 13 - Celtic Survival 258
  • 14 - Retrospect 268
  • A Guide to Further Reading 275
  • Chronological Tables 285
  • Map Section 289
  • Index 317
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 324

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.