the proprietors in the Lowlands adopted a more commercialized attitude. There
was a revolution of manners, a turning away from fortified castles and large
retinues, which were still common in the late seventeenth century, to elegant
country houses such as Mellerstain and Hopetoun, designed by rising architects
such as William Adam and his sons, with their delicate plasterwork, fine
furniture, and works of art. Land was valued as a source of rent rather than to
sustain a retinue, paying for a town house in the New Town of Edinburgh or London and maintaining a grand house in the country. The Scottish nobles and
lairds were Anglicized, becoming part of a wider British upper class.
J. V. Beckett, "'The Pattern of Landownership in England and Wales,
1660-1880'", Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 37 ( 1984), 2.
G. C. Brodrick, English Land and English Landlords ( 1881), 152.
F. Pollock, The Land Laws (3rd edn., 1896), 118.
Hansard Parliamentary Debates, NS 18, col. 181, 7 Feb 1828.
J. P. Jenkins, "'The Demographic Decline of the Landed Gentry in the Eighteenth
Century: A South Wales Study'", Welsh History Review, 11 ( 1982-3), 37; T. H. Hollingsworth
, "'The Demography of the British Peerage'", supplement to Population Studies, 18
( 1964); L. Bonfield, "'Marriage Settlements and the Rise of the Great Estates: The
Demographic Evidence'", Economic History Review, 32 ( 1979), 490, 492.
Habakkuk's position has developed over his career in a series of articles: see Further
H. J. Habbakuk, "'Marriage Settlements in the Eighteenth Century'", Transactions of the
Royal Historical Society, 4th ser. 32 ( 1950), 25.
J. P. Cooper, "'Patterns of Inheritance and Settlement by Great Landowners from the
Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries'", in
J. Goody et al. (eds.), Family and Inheritance:
Rural Society in Western Europe, 1200-1800 ( Cambridge, 1976), 307.
J. Austen, Pride and Prejudice (1813), ed.
D. J. Gray ( New York, 1966), 42.
R. Trumbach, The Rise of the Egalitarian Family: Aristocratic Kinship and Domestic
Relations in Eighteenth-Century England ( New York, 1978), 77.
C. G. A. Clay, "'Marriage, Inheritance and the Rise of Large Estates in England,
1660-1815'", Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 21 ( 1968), 511.
J. Davies, Cardiff and the Marquesses of Bute ( Cardiff, 1981), 1, 4-10.
R. Brenner, "'Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial
Europe'", Past and Present, 70 ( 1976).
M. Spufford, Contrasting Communities: English Villagers in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries ( Cambridge, 1974), 73, 149.
C. G.A. Clay, "'Landlords and Estate Management in England'", in
J. Thirsk (ed.), The
Agrarian History of England and Wales, v: 1640-1750, ii: Agrarian Change ( Cambridge, 1985), 182.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Progress and Poverty:An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850.
Contributors: M. J. Daunton - Author.
Publisher: Oxford University Press.
Place of publication: Oxford.
Publication year: 1995.
Page number: 87.
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