Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850

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Britain; they were reborn on the American frontier. The history of British agrarian society and demographic structures continued across the Atlantic, among the craftsmen of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia and the small farmers of New England. The craftsmen of the Atlantic seaboard shared with the craftsmen in London, from whom so many were drawn, the same attitudes to the maintenance of their 'honourable' trades and their property in skill. On the frontier, settlers developed the country ideology of hostility to monied corruption and aristocratic privilege which was a commonplace in the county associations of England. Britain was, indeed, part of a wider Atlantic demographic and political system. 29

Quoted in E. A. Wrigley, Continuity, Chance and Change: The Character of the Industrial Revolution in England ( Cambridge, 1988), 33.
e.g. P. E. Razzell, "'Population Change in Eighteenth-Century England: A Reinterpretation'", Economic History Review, 2nd ser 18. ( 1965), and, more generally, T. McKeown , The Modern Rise of Population ( 1976), ch. 2.
E. A. Wrigley and R. S. Schofield, The Population History of England, 1541-1871: A Reconstruction ( 1981), 451.
Ibid. 453.
Ibid. 451.
Ibid. 257-65; see also D. R. Weir, "'Rather Never than Late: Celibacy and Age at Marriage in English Cohort Fertility, 1541-1871'", Journal of Family History, 9 ( 1990).
E. A. Wrigley, "'Family Limitation in Pre-industrial England'", Economic History Review, 2nd ser. 29 ( 1966); and C. Wilson, 'Natural Fertility in Pre-industrial England, 1600-1799', Population Studies, 38 ( 1984).
Wrigley and Schofield, Population History, 435.
R. B. Outhwaite, "'Age at Marriage in England from the Late Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century'", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser. 23 ( 1975), 59.
D. E. C. Eversley, "'A Survey of Population in an Area of Worcestershire from 1660-1750 on the Basis of Parish Registers'", in D. V. Glass and D. E. C. Eversley (eds.), Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography ( 1965), 403, 406, 408-9.
P. R. A. Hinde, 'Household Structure, Marriage and the Institution of Service in Nineteenth-Century Rural England', Local Population Studies, 35 ( 1985); and "'The Marriage Market in the Nineteenth-Century English Countryside'", Journal of European Economic History, 18 ( 1989).
A. Kussmaul, Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England ( Cambridge, 1981).
J. A. Goldstone, "'The Demographic Revolution in England: A Re-examination'", Population Studies, 39 ( 1986), 19.
R. I. Woods and P. R. A. Hinde, "'Nuptuality and Age at Marriage in Nineteenth- Century England'", Journal of Family History, 10 ( 1985), 125.
D. Levine, Family Formation in an Age of Nascent Capitalism ( New York, 1977).


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Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850
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