The numerous republics [states] scattered through so wide a range of territory, embracing all the climates, and containing all the various products of the earth, seem destined, in the course of years, to form a world within themselves, independent alike of the treasures and the industry of all the other sections of the globe. Each year they are learning, more and more, to look to each other for all the various articles of food and raiment; while the third great human necessity, defence, they have been from infancy practised to furnish in common. The bonds of union, indeed, are more numerous and intimate than can be easily conceived by foreigners.


The patriotism that is a virtue, and that ennobles character, is a spirit of devotion to one's country, from a purified instinct and for purposes of enlightened benefit.


IN FORGING political independence the Revolution did not bring that solidarity on which effective national loyalty depends. The multiplicity of peoples, the variety of climates, soils, and customs, and, particularly, local and regional interests and state pride and devotion, all seemed to work against national unity. To these divisive factors must be added certain economic tensions and conflicts of interest. Merchants and entrepreneurs were divided. Urban workers and their employers were often set against each other. Industrial and banking groups in the East were aligned against western and southern farmers, and, everywhere, debtors against creditors. In the conflicts of these groups the sentiment of patriotism played a part. Each group appealed to patriotism by identifying its position and program with the general interest of the country, with devotion to, and love of, the nation. On occasion such appeals and


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The Roots of American Loyalty


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