Political Mobilization: A Sociological Analysis of Methods and Concepts

By J. P. Nettl | Go to book overview

CHAPTER TEN

Mobilization and the Quality of
Political Culture

SUMMARY

We now come back to the classification of political cultures into constitutional and elitist, which was established for developed countries in chapter 3. Does such a classification apply also to the developmental situations we have just been examining, and if so how? Can we relate stalactite mobilization in any general and systematic way to these two types of social culture? 1 An attempt is made in this chapter to isolate the factors which indicate the nature of emerging political cultures in situations of development. Then possible future developments are discussed under four headings: 1. The relationship between forms of mobilization, patterns of culture and social change. 2. The relationship of form, direction and structure of mobilization with legitimacy. 3. The instrumentality of different forms of mobilization for economic growth. 4. The chances of autonomous (as opposed to induced) democratization in the form of choice-accommodation.

____________________
1
There has recently been an increasing effort to analyse the problem of developing countries more specifically in terms of political culture. A cultural emphasis is implied in many area studies of developing countries. Culture has also played an important part in many historical studies of social change in different societies, especially where particular dramatic events like the Bolshevik Revolution or the Meiji restoration in Japan were at issue. For the latter see particularly R. P. Dore, Education in Tokugawa, Japan, London 1965, who concludes that 'where the notion of individual self-improvement is widely diffused, the notion of national improvement can readily be understood and accepted' (though he does not, of course, suggest self-improvement to have entrepreneurial connotations like e.g. McClelland). See also R. N. Bellah, Tokugawa Religion, Glencoe 1957 ; R. A. Scalapino and J. Masuri, Parties and Politics in Contemporary Japan, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1962; Robert E. Ward and Dankwart A. Rustow (eds.), Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, Princeton 1964. Particularly important in this field is the work of Clifford Geertz, who has tied in religion as a vital component of culture formation. See his recent general outline in 'Religion as a Cultural System', in Michael Banton (ed.), Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion, London 1966. Geertz also provides perhaps the best 'bridge' between anthropological and sociological approaches to the empirical study of culture.

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