Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

26
PRODUCTIVITY
Marc Holzer Rutgers, The State University of New JerseyThe ratio of outputs (work done, products distributed, services rendered) and outcomes (impact achieved) to inputs (labor, capital, materials, space, energy, time, etc.). Productivity improvement represents favorable changes in that ratio. Thus, it is important to recognize the differences between various ratios of improvement.
Inputs decline, outputs/outcomes remain constant. This ratio represents a cutback management situation in which management is forced to respond productively. For example, faced with a cutback in staff, a state mental health facility may reorganize, allowing for the same level of services with more efficient use of remaining staff.
Inputs remain constant, outputs/outcomes improve. Many critics advocate this case. They often expect "quick fixes" based on limited perspectives or critiques by groups external to the agency. For example, they might propose that each social services worker increase applications processed by 25 percent. This might be a reasonable goal, but only in the long run as better management of inputs improves outputs. But still, without the capacity to invest in better management, and to provide adequate services to more applicants, this case is less reasonable than the next.
Inputs decline substantially, outputs/outcomes improve substantially. Some elected officials and private sector critics advocate this

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Defining Public Administration: Selections from the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Preface vii
  • Part One - Overviews of Public Administration *
  • 1 - Public Administration 3
  • 2 - American Administrative Tradition 17
  • 3 - Feminist Theory of Public Administration 30
  • Part Two - Policy Making *
  • 4 - Policy 39
  • 5 - Policy Leadership 43
  • 6 - Policy N Etwork 65
  • 7 - Rule 73
  • Part Three - Intergovernmental Relations *
  • 8 - Intergovernmental Relations 83
  • 9 - Mandates 102
  • 10 - Government Corporation 110
  • Part Four - Bureaucracy *
  • 11 - Bureaucracy *
  • 12 - Bureaucrat Bashing 128
  • 13 - Bureaupathology 132
  • Part Five - Organization Behavior *
  • 14 - Organizational Culture 137
  • 15 - Groupthink 147
  • 16 - Mies's Law 151
  • 17 - Parkinson's Law 154
  • 18 - Peter Principle 156
  • Part Six - Public Management *
  • 19 - Public Management 161
  • 20 - Scientific Management 169
  • 21 - Management Science 180
  • 22 - Entrepreneurial Public Administration 184
  • Part Seven - Strategic Management *
  • 23 - Leadership 191
  • 24 - Strategic Planning 208
  • 25 - Mission Statement 230
  • Part Eight - Performance Management *
  • 26 - Productivity 237
  • 27 - Reengineering 249
  • 28 - Quality Circles 271
  • 29 - Public Enterprise 279
  • Part Nine - Human Resources Management *
  • 30 - Public Personnel Administration 295
  • 31 - Mentoring 307
  • 32 - Pay-For-Performance 315
  • 33 - Workforce Diversity 322
  • 34 - Glass Ceiling 339
  • Part Ten - Financial Management *
  • 35 - Financial Administration 345
  • 36 - Congressional Budget Process 355
  • 37 - Target-Based Budgeting 367
  • Part Eleven - Auditing and Accountability *
  • 38 - Audit 375
  • 39 - Accountability 382
  • 40 - Stewardship 396
  • Part Twelve - Ethics *
  • 41 - Administrative Morality 407
  • 42 - Standards of Conduct 416
  • 43 - Regime Values 420
  • 44 - Lying with Statistics 422
  • 45 - Whistleblower 428
  • Appendix - A Complete List of the Articles in the International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration 437
  • Index 447
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