Illustrated Dictionary of Symbols in Eastern and Western Art

By James Hall; Chris Puleston | Go to book overview
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Chronological Tables
EGYPT
BC mid-4th cent.c. 3100 Predynastic Period. Worship of Mother-Goddess. Local gods worshipped in animal and plant form.
c. 3100-2613 Early Dynastic, or Archaic Period (1st-3rd Dynasties). Union of kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (1st Dyn.). Pharaoh becomes the incarnation of Horus. First pyramid built (3rd Dyn.). Anthropomorphic gods.
c. 2613-2181 Old Kingdom (4th-6th Dyn.). Pyramid Texts (end of 5th Dyn., through 6th Dyn.).
c. 2181-2133 First Intermediate Period (7th-10th Dyn.). Early Coffin Texts. Doctrine of the Judgement of the Dead formulated. Osiris the pre-eminent god of the dead.
c. 2133-1786 Middle Kingdom (11th-12th Dyn.). Later Coffin Texts. Growth of the cult of Amun.
c. 1786-1567 Second Intermediate Period (13th-17th Dyn.). Hyksos invasion and rule (15th-17th Dyn.) accompanied by infiltration of Syrian gods.
c. 1567-1085 New Kingdom (18th-20th Dyn.). First Book of the Dead papyri (mid-18th Dyn.). Amun becomes supreme national deity. Reign of Tutankhamun (19th Dyn.).
c. 1085-343 Late Dynastic Period (21st-30th Dyn.). Veneration of sacred animals; catacombs for Apis bulls built at Sakkara (26th Dyn.). Persian domination (27th Dyn.).
323 Conquest by Alexander the Great.
323-30 Ptolemaic (Hellenistic) Period. Cult of Graeco-Egyptian deity, Serapis, introduced by Ptolemy I. Cult of Isis spreads to Greece and Rome.
30 BC-AD 395 Egypt a Roman Province. Founding of Coptic Church. First Christian hermits in the Theban desert (early 4th cent.).

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